In 1998, UNICEF embarked on a process of helping countries assess progress for children at end-decade in relation to the World Summit for Children goals (New York, 1990).
The list of global indicators being used to assess progress at end-decade was developed through extensive consultation, both within UNICEF, particularly with Programme Division and the Regional Offices, and with WHO, UNESCO and the ILO. The global indicator list can be found in Annex 1 of the Executive Directive EXD/1999-03 dated 23 April 1999.
Mid decade experience
There are numerous sources of data for measuring progress at country level, but many either do not function well enough to give current and quality data, or do not provide the data required for assessing progress. Household surveys are capable of filling many of these data gaps. The mid-decade assessment led to 100 countries collecting data using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), household surveys developed to obtain specific mid-decade data, or via MICS questionnaire modules carried by other surveys. By 1996, 60 developing countries had carried out stand-alone MICS, and another 40 had incorporated some of the MICS modules into other surveys. The mid-decade questionnaire and manual, the countries where a standalone MICS was implemented.
The end-decade assessment
The end-decade MICS questionnaire and manual have been developed specifically to obtain the data for 63 of the 75 end-decade indicators. These draw heavily on experiences with the mid-decade MICS and the subsequent MICS evaluation. The content is organized into question modules, for countries to adopt or omit according to the data already available. The development of the end-decade MICS questionnaire and manual has drawn on an even wider spread of organizations than the mid-decade MICS. They include WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNAIDS, the United Nations Statistical Division, CDC Atlanta, MEASURE (USAID), Johns Hopkins University, Columbia University, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and others.
The 2000 Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS2) is a nationally representative survey of households, women and children. The objectives of the survey are to provide upto- date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Sudan and to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children as a basis for future action.
In Sudan, a major joint effort was put into the development of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) for the end decade review and as a tool for monitoring the situation of children and women during the 2000. The survey results have kept the promise of promoting and monitoring progress towards achievement of the end decade goals. Three extra modules were added to the main questionnaire to cover new issues: wealth index for poverty analysis, children in need of special protection measures, and female genital mutilation. Data were for the first time disaggregated not only by gender and age groups but also by state thus highlighting geographical disparities as well. The survey was carried out successfully in partnership with the Government of Sudan, UNICEF and the World Bank. The co-ordination between the different line ministries, government institutions, UN agencies, Universities and NGOs was a key factor and a prime mover for producing good quality work. The leading role of the technical and steering committees has to be acknowledged. The spirit of teamwork fostered and led by the Federal Ministry of Health and the Central Bureau of Statistics during the course of implementation is commendable.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households, Women, Children.
Data downloaded from MICS2 website (www.childinfo.org) on May 24, 2011
Household questionnaire: Household member information, Education, Child labour, Water and Sanitation, Salt iodisation, Assets.
Children's Questionnaire: Birth registration and early learning, Vitamin A, Breastfeeding, Care of illness, Malaria, Immunisation and Anthropometry.
The 2000 Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS2) is a nationally representative survey of households, women and children.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children's Fund
United nations Children's Fund
The sample for the Sudan MICSII was designed to provide estimates for a wide range of socio-economic indicators not only at the national level but also disaggregated by state, urban-rural setting and by gender for Sudan. Sixteen states in the north and the three main towns in the south (Juba, Malakal and Wau) comprising one unit, were covered giving a total of 17 “states”. The sample design was a two-stage stratified cluster sample. The 17 “states” were considered as strata, and were further stratified into urban and rural areas according to the population size. The village councils (VC) in rural areas and quarter councils (QC) in urban areas were taken as the primary sampling units (PSUs) in stage one. The PSUs were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS), with modifications in some states. Secondly, a fixed number of households (HH) were taken from each selected PSU using systematic sampling.
Of the 26,810 households selected for the Sudan MICSII sample, 25,200 were in the northern states and 1,610 in the towns of the south (Table 01 A). Of these, 25,183 HHs were successfully interviewed with a household response rate of 99.9 percent with a negligible difference between rural and urban areas. In the interviewed households, 24,993 eligible women aged 15-49 were identified. Of these, 22,949 were successfully interviewed, with a response rate of 91.8 percent. In addition, 23,540 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Of these, questionnaires were completed for 23,296 children with a response rate of 99 percent.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Local field teams from the states were trained for seven days in early July 2000 on data collection techniques. Two teams from each state were trained with each team comprising four interviewers responsible for field data collection. Each team had a supervisor and one driver. The state MICS Co-ordinator provided overall supervision, guidance, editing and revision of the questionnaires on daily basis. The fieldwork began late in July and concluded in August 2000.
The Sudan questionnaire is an adaptation of the MICS Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. A household questionnaire is designed to collect information on household members including sex, age, literacy, marital status, and orphanhood status was administered in each household. The household questionnaire also included education, child labour, water and sanitation, salt iodisation and assets modules. In addition to the household questionnaire, two sub-questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and for children under the age of five. The children questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child.
Data were entered in four microcomputers using the EMPHS and SPSS software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under MICS andadapted to the Sudan Questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began in August 2000 and finished in December 2000.
United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF)
MICS Programme Manager
Dataset available free of charge to registered users (www.childinfo.org).
MICS2 has put greater efforts in not only properly documenting the results published in the MICS2 country reports, but also to maximize the use of micro data sets via documentation and dissemination. For those MICS2 countries that granted UNICEF direct access to the micro data sets and documentation, a rigorous process was completed to ensure internal and external consistency, basic standards of data quality, corresponding documentation and, standardization of variable and value labels across countries.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigators and the country
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistics. Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2000. Ref. SDN_2000_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.childinfo.org on [day]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Prepared by IHSN/World Bank Microdata Library