Starting June 1999, after the intervention of NATO in the conflict between Kosovo and Serbia (FRY), the United Nations provided interim administration for the province. The consequences of the conflict on the living standards of the population were severe, with the collapse of the industrial sector, the paralysis of agriculture, and extensive damage to private housing, education and health facilities and other infrastructure. In addition, the conflict brought massive population displacement both within Kosovo and abroad.
A year later, Kosovo was in a process of transition from emergency relief to long-term economic development. The purpose of the survey was to provide crucial information for policy and program design for use by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), international donors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the Kosovar community at large for poverty alleviation and inequality reduction.
During the same period, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was planning an agriculture and livestock survey. It was decided to join both surveys, in order to pool resources and provide better assistance to the newly re-formed Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK) and to take into account the extensive Kosovar peasant household economy. Therefore the agriculture and food aid modules are more developed than those of a standard LSMS survey.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) also was interested in information related to labor force and employment. They had run a socio-demographic and reproductive health survey with the United Nations Population Fund, covering approximately 10,000 households at the end of 1999. IOM provided the urban sampling frame for the present survey.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
1. Characteristics and Composition of the Household: This module contains the roster of individuals living in the household, their age, gender, marital status, and information that identifies spouses and parents. In addition, the module contains questions about new members after the conflict, members’ movement during the conflict and spouses/children away from the household.
2. Education: The module starts with basic literacy and educational attainment questions for all members 5 years and older. It then proceeds with school attendance and expenditures for all members enrolled.
3. Economic activity and employment:: This module is administered to all individuals 10 years and older and is divided into five sections:
A. Determination of current work status (past 7 days),
B. Overview of work in the last 7 days, last 12 months
C. Primary and secondary occupation in the past 7 days, 12 months
D. For the Kosovar Albanian households, employment status and occupation prior to 1991
E. Main activity in 1991
4. Household enterprises: This module collects information on households which operate household enterprises. It is divided into four sections:
A. Establish existence of enterprise
B. General characteristics of the business,
C. Labor (household and hired),
D. Earnings and expenditures,
E. Capital equipment
F. Business assets
5. Information and networks: This module collects information on group memberships, responses to crisis and household security issues
6. Agricultural activities: This modules collects information on farming operations, with a special focus on access to aid for inputs and animals. It is divided into 6 sections:
A. Land ownership and operations,
B. Crops production
C. Input use (seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, labor, equipment)
D. Post-harvest processing
E. Agricultural equipment inventory
F. Livestock ownership and operations.
7. Consumption and expenditures: The module is divided into sections:
A. Non- food and food away from home in the past 7 days,
B. Food expenditures in the past 30 days and patterns of consumption in the past 12 months; stored food
C. Non-food expenditures in the past 30 days and 12 months
D. Transfers given in the past 12 months
E. Durable goods inventory
8. Health: The health module is divided into two sections:
A. Health expenditures on all individuals in the past 4 weeks,
B. Self-reported health status for individuals 15 years and older
9. Miscellaneous Income: This module collects information on other sources of income
A. Income from private inter- household transfers
B. Social protection
C. Other non-labor income
10. Characteristics of the dwelling: This module contains questions relative to the quality of the dwelling and services (water, electricity, heating, sanitation) available in the household.
1. Respondent characteristics: Description of the respondents to the questionnaire
2. Community structure: This module collects information on population and movements since March 1998
3. Institutions and infrastructure: This module contains questions about services and infrastructure available in the community.
4. Economy: This module collects information on economic activities and employment sources
5. Agriculture: This module collects information on main crops and agricultural wages and services
6. Organization and displacement: This module collects information on community organization and displacement issues
7. Health: This module collects information on all health providers used by residents
10. School: This module contains questions about all educational facilities used by residents. (The module was numbered 10 in anticipation of the additional modules that were not included.)
Domains: Urban/rural; Area of Responsibility (American, British, French, German, Italian); Serbian minority
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The sample design used in the Kosovo LSMS 2000 had to contend with the fact that the last census, conducted in 1991, was rendered obsolete by the boycott of the Albanian population and by the massive displacements since March 1998.
A Housing Damage Assessment Survey (HDAS) was conducted in February 1999 and updated in June 1999 by the International Management Group (IMG) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the rural areas. The survey covered 95 percent of the Albanian rural areas and provided the basis for the rural sampling frame, after updating. The updating and household listings in selected villages were conducted by FAO.
Since the HDAS did not cover Serbian villages, a quick counting4 of housing units was performed in these villages, following a procedure similar to the one in the urban areas. In urban areas, the original plan was to use the information from the on-going individual
voters’ registration conducted by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Since the registration was limited to individuals above 16 years old, it was then decided to conduct a quick counting of households in the 22 urban areas. The quick counting and subsequent listing of households was performed by IOM, under the supervision of the sampling expert hired by the World Bank.
UNMIK divided Kosovo into 5 areas of responsibility (AR), roughly equivalent to the former regions (American – Southeast, British – East including Pristina, French – North, German-South, Italian – West). The rural frame used the IMG/UNHCR Housing Damage Assessment Survey. It was updated with the collaboration of FAO and provided much better information on which to build the sample for the survey. Aerial pictures of the villages selected in the survey were used to help identifying housing units. Only one household was interviewed in each housing unit. For the Serbian villages, counting households and making listings had to be elaborated by the survey team.
In urban areas, IOM contracted the quick counting to SOK in the Albanian cities and to firms in the Serb areas. These firms updated existing lists, or performed some quick counting. Using the updated information IOM created enumeration areas of size 150-200 housing units. Based on this quick counting, a full listing took place in all the selected EAs and 12 households were randomly selected. Given safety issues and quality problems discovered at the enumeration stage, the Serb urban listings were revised after the end of the survey, by the Serb survey team, who had performed the rural listings.
The sample was preset at 2,880 households in order to allow analyses in the following breakdowns: (a) Kosovo as a whole; (b) by area of responsibility, (c) by urban/rural locations. In addition, the survey data can be used to derive separate estimates for the Serbian minority.
In the rural area, 30 Albanian villages were randomly selected in each AR and a listing of all households in the village was established.5 In each village, 12 households were then randomly selected (8 for interviewing and 4 reserve households). Similarly, 30 urban enumeration areas (between 150 and 200 households lie in each urban EA) were randomly selected in the Albanian part of each AR. Twelve households were then selected in each EA. In the rural area, 30 Serb villages were selected from the three municipalities in the northern part of Kosovo, the enclaves and the municipality of Strepce. Thirty urban EA were selected in the same region. In each village and urban area, 12 households were then randomly selected.
In addition to the explicit stratification of the areas of responsibility and the ethnic composition in each rural and urban category, an implicit stratification of geographic ordering in a serpentine method in the villages and urban enumeration areas was followed. In order to be able to provide estimates for the separate domains described above, it was recommended that 240 households be interviewed in each domain. We had very little prior knowledge of response rates. In the rural villages, it was decided to select 12 households and identify 4 of them as “reserve households”. These reserve households were to be used only in specific cases, described at length to the logistics person/driver of the interviewing team. The final sample size was 1,200 rural and urban Albanian households and 240 rural and urban Serb households, for a total sample size of 2,880 households.
Households from the original sample selection which could not be interviewed were replaced by reserve households to reach the final sample size. The non-response rate among households originally selected for inclusion in the sample in rural Albanian areas was 11.8 percent and 20.8 percent in urban Albanian areas. These rates in the Serbian areas were 14.2 percent among rural households and 39.2 percent among urban households.
In the rural Albanian areas, non-response came mostly from households having moved outside of the village. A few refusals were due to the fact that households were in mourning or celebrating other religious occasions (wedding, baptisms, circumcisions, etc…), or the household head was a women alone. There were only 20 actual refusals of the originally selected households, only 2 percent of the 1,200 households originally contacted.
In the Serbian rural areas, half of the non-responses were due to households having traveled to Serbia for visits (holidays, health care issues, indefinite travel….). Other reasons included: interviewer’s safety (houses too isolated) and households refusing to respond in the absence of the head. There were only 5 such cases, again only 2 percent of the 240 households originally contacted. In the urban areas, 10 percent of the non-responses were linked to listings problems (non-existent addresses). Another 75 percent came from households having moved (temporarily or indefinitely) and/or renting their dwelling to KFOR and international staff. The remaining reasons included refusals for security and illness reasons. There were only 6 such cases, again close to 2 percent of the 240 households originally contacted.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The pilot test of the household survey was performed in rural areas around Pristina (Albanian British rural) and in an apartment complex of Pristina (Albanian British urban) in the last week of August 2000. For the pilot, all questionnaires had random starting modules so as to ensure that all modules were tested during the limited time available for this exercise. The total number of interviews was approximately 50 completed interviews. Given the severe logistic constraints (see section VIII), it was not possible to perform a pilot test in the Serbian areas. Required changes to adapt the questionnaire to Serb specificity were done during the field practices of the Serbian field team training. The Albanian pilot was administered by 12 members of the SOK team, with previous experience in interviewing. The experience of the pilot led us to changes in the questionnaires and was crucial in assessing the time needed for the interviews as well as the relative difficulty of specific modules.
ORGANIZATION AND FIELDWORK PROCEDURES
The household questionnaire was administered by teams consisting of one supervisor, five interviewers, and a driver/logistic agent in the Albanian areas. Of the five interviewers, one was specialized in the agriculture and consumption modules, or used as a additional interviewer when the household size was too large to enable one interviewer to complete an interview in a reasonable amount of time. There were a total of 8 teams for the Albanian interviews.
The supervisors were responsible for making sure that the interviewers had all the materials they needed and for solving all minor problems that came up in the field. In addition, the supervisor was in charge of administering the community questionnaire in each village/urban EA. The driver/logistics person was in charge of explaining the survey to the households selected to participate and setting up interviews6 with the respondent households. They were also responsible for selecting the reserve households in the cases specifically assigned by the field manager.
In the Serbian areas, a total of fourteen interviewers were recruited and trained, with six from the northern part of Kosovo and eight from the enclaves. One Kosovar Serb coordinator was in charge of the field operations. A Macedonian Albanian driver and a British field assistant were contracted to ensure the safe transportation of one of the Southern interviewing teams between Serbian settlements, and to address potential safety issues. The other team used local transportation to the villages which could be safely reached from Gracenica. One international French staff member supervised the teams in the South and another French staff member supervised the team in the North, going to Mitrovica on a daily basis.
The household questionnaire for the Kosovo LSMS was generally administered in one visit to the household. On average, it took two to three hours to administer the questionnaire in Albanian rural areas, an hour and a half to two hours in the Albanian urban areas. For the Serbian areas, the respective times were one hour and a half in the rural areas and one hour in urban areas. The difference in timing seems to be mainly due to the much larger household size and variety of income activities among the Kosovar Albanians. The training for the administration of the questionnaire for the Albanian team was held between September 6 and 23, 2000 in SOK in Pristina, with field practices September 18-23. The training was conducted by an Albanian demographer, assisted by a UNDP staff member seconded to the survey and a FAO staff member in charge of the agricultural module. The survey itself was administered from September 25 through November 4, 2000 in the rural areas and from November 10 through December 4, 2000 in the urban areas.
The training for the Serbian team was held between October 8 and 24, in Gracenica, with field practices on October 23 and 24. The training was conducted by an international consultant and the Serbian Kosovar supervisor. The survey itself was administered from October 25 to November 22, 2000 in the rural areas and through December 18 in the urban areas. The first questionnaires were administered by teams in Prizren and Peja.
The rural community questionnaire was administered by the team supervisor during the time that the team was in the village doing the household enumeration. The supervisor contacted the mayor of the village, or failing that, a local leader such as the school principal. If there is more than one name on the list of respondents in the community questionnaire, the respondents were interviewed together.
The rural community questionnaire was fairly straight forward to administer because the boundaries of the village are clear in everyone's mind and there was no ambiguity about: (a) a facility existing or not in the community; or (b) the distance to the facility. In the Serbian areas in the south, the community questionnaires were mainly administered by the Serb team coordinator, with several done by the team supervisors. There were political tensions in the enclaves, and they had to be mindful of this when trying to find someone in authority to interview since there were no clear cut leaders. Several times they were unable to identify someone on the days they were in the village for enumeration and had to return to the village in the following days. The Serb villages in the north were much like the Albanian villages, with an identifiable leader available. The supervisor of the northern team did all the community
The urban community questionnaire was more difficult to administer. There was no time during the urban enumeration for the supervisors to find the proper respondents, and it was difficult to determine the best way to obtain the data. The education facilities, health facilities and industry portions of the questionnaire were done on a city-wide basis with subject matter specialists for each module. For example, in Gjacova the supervisor went to the Department of Education for the school location and enrollment information, to the Department of Health for the hospital information, and to the government official who had information on the industries in the city for that portion of the questionnaire. This means that each community questionnaire for Gjacova will have the same information for these three modules. The rest of the modules were administered to a leader, or group of leaders, in the enumeration area.
The data from community questionnaire are not a representative sample of communities in Kosovo. These data are intended to provide information on the context in which the households are located for the analyses of the household data.
The survey took place during a period of political transition in the former Yugoslavia region, with tensions in Montenegro in August-September, ousting of President Milosevic in Serbia on October 5, and municipal elections in Kosovo on October 28. The political context influenced the logistics of interviews in the Serbian areas and the post-conflict patterns of behavior of respondent households.
Access to ethnic minorities
Enumeration of the Serbs as a separate frame required counting households in all Serbian villages and urban zones. The rural Serb population in Kosovo numbers about 80,000, of which 20,000 live in the Northern part of Kosovo (3 municipalities) and the rest is scattered in the “enclaves” of Southern and Central Kosovo and in the southern municipality of Strepce (Evans, 2000). Of the 30 selected villages, 8 are in Northern Kosovo. Twenty-four of the urban EAs are also located there, because of the larger urban areas of Mitrovica and Zvecan. Access to communities for counting and listing required securing the agreement of local political leaders, in the enclaves as well as in the North. Training had to be organized separately for the field teams as their safety would have been put into question in SOK facilities. Recruiting of Serb field staff was relatively more difficult in the enclaves, due to the aging of the population, which chose to remain there (Salama et al. 2000). The trainees from the North were all university students.
Training took place in Gracenica, which required the interviewers from the North to travel daily, from Mitrovica North to Pristina on UN transportation, with no guarantees that their safety could be ensured in the event of a mechanical problem of the UN bus. Transportation between Pristina and Gracenica, and also between enclaves for the field work, in a project jeep required contracting a Macedonian driver and a British field assistant to be at all times with the driver. The driver, the Serb team and the field assistant were in radio contact at all times.
Security for the field workers was a primary concern during the field work. Because some of the quick counting and household listings were contracted out, safety related information was not always relayed to the team planning the logistics of the field work. Some supposedly Serb houses in southern enclaves were in fact occupied by Albanian households which were not pleased when the Serb interviewers appeared. This required double-checking before fieldwork could proceed. Some zones in North Mirovica were deemed too dangerous to be listed systematically and the names were taken from a dweller. This information was not relayed to the interviewing team, when the EA was selected into the sample. As a result, the team was pulled out of the field and alternative EAs had to be selected. These examples show the importance of good communication between the different components of the survey team.
Two questionnaires were used to collect the information: a household questionnaire and a community questionnaire. No anthropometric information was collected as malnutrition problems, facing Kosovar children and women, would not be detected by these procedures.
Since FAO and SOK were conducting a price survey in 7 cities of Kosovo, on a monthly basis, it was decided to not include a separate price questionnaire but use the data from the FAO-SOK price survey. The Kosovo LSMS 2000 collected information using a household questionnaire, which was based in part on the standard LSMS questionnaire developed in Grosh and Glewwe (2000).
The standard questionnaire was adapted to the specifics of the Kosovar environment and special modules about displacement, food aid and social protection were added. Individual modules were administered as much as possible to most informed respondents. Box 1 contains a summary of the content of the questionnaire.
The community questionnaire was designed to collect information on community-level infrastructure, with a special emphasis on school and health facilities as well as displaced persons issues. Box 2 contains a summary of the content of the community questionnaire. [Note: Community is defined as the Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) of the survey. In rural areas, it generally encompasses villages unless these are less than 50 households (in which case, they were grouped with a neighboring village) or more than 200 households (in which case, they were broken-up in PSUs of 50-200 households). In urban areas, community is defined as the Enumeration Area but includes the larger city when referring to secondary school and university, hospitals and factories.]
Three Albanian and one Serb office editors received the questionnaires each day, did the required office coding (industry codes) and checked for completion errors and obvious mistakes. If corrections were necessary, the questionnaires were returned to the enumerators, for revisions and/or return to the household.
The data entry program was designed using CSPro, a data entry package developed by the US Census Bureau. This software allows programs to be developed to perform three types of data checks: (a) range checks, (b) intra-record checks to verify inconsistencies inside a module, and (c) inter-records checks to determine inconsistencies between different modules of the questionnaire. The data entry program was designed by a consultant and field checked and translated into Albanian, with the help of the local data entry supervisor.
The data were key entered at SOK headquarters, in a semi-concurrent fashion, by eight data entry operators. In addition, nine SOK staff performed a double-data entry of a part of the data. This was designed as an additional quality check as well as on-the-job training for the SOK data entry operators.
Data entry for the household survey was completed by December 31, 2000. A 3-day delay was caught-up with during the week break, preceding the October 28 elections. Data from the Serbian questionnaires were also key entered at SOK headquarters since all but one data entry staff could read Serbian and the format of the questionnaire stayed identical. At the end of the data entry, some errors were found in the CS-Pro program and some sections were reentered.
Data entry for the community questionnaire was completed on January 17.
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Statistical Office of Kosovo
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State Institute of Statistics of Prime Ministry of Turkey. Kosovo Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2000, Ref. KSV_2000_LSMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
World Bank LSMS
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