The study was designed to assess the effectiveness of spending in Madagascar public health sector. The research evaluated the flow of financial and material resources, medication and wages from central/district to local health facilities. The survey also looked into absenteeism among basic health centers' employees.
The research was conducted in two rounds. The first round was carried out in October-November 2006 and the second round - in April-May 2007. The study was implemented using stratified random sampling. Data from 100 health centers in six provinces was analyzed.
Public Expenditure Tracking Survey in Madagascar primary education sector was conducted at the same time with this research.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v01 - Final, edited datasets.
Documented here are final, cleaned datasets prepared by the World Bank based on raw datasets provided by the study researchers.
The description of the difference between raw and edited datasets is taken from "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" (p.10):
"Each country set includes two data files. The first file, the "raw" data file, presents the data as collected and entered by the survey teams. While field teams do conduct very high-level coherence tests with regards to responses collected, the data contained therein has generally not been thoroughly checked for internal coherence across questions, variable outliers and other such involved data cleaning procedures.
Finally, independently of the values presented in the questionnaires, missing values are replaced across all "final" data sets to ensure consistency across countries. Following industry best practices, negative 3-digit integers are used in order to ensure there is no confusion between missing values and valid data points. "
"Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" is available in external resources.
Health Systems & Financing
Provinces: Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, Toamasina, Mahajanga, Toliara and Antsiranana.
Unit of analysis
- Centre de Santé de Base/Basic Health Centers;
- Pharmacie à Gestion District/District Pharmacies;
- Service de Santé de District/District Health Authorities;
- Basic Health Centers' employees.
The survey covers public basic health centers (CSB), district pharmacies (PhaGDis), district health authorities (SSD) and CSB workers in all six Madagascar provinces.
Producers and sponsors
Ministere de la Sante et de la Planification Familiale (Department of Health and Family Planning)
The study was conducted using stratified random sampling.
The stratified sample was set up to be representative at the national level. Madagascar has 22 regions and 111 districts, and at least one district was visited in each region. Two districts were selected in the six largest regions. 28 districts were visited in total. The selected districts were obtained through random selection, giving greater (less) weight to districts with more (less) health centers within the district. In each district, three communes were randomly selected.
Two types of health centers - CSB (Centre de Santé de Base/Basic Health Center) Type I and CSB Type II - provide basic health care in Madagascar. In the selected communes, all public health centers of Type II were visited. If public health centers of Type I were present in the commune, one was visited based on random selection.
In the province of Antananarivo 23 public primary health centers were visited, 27 facilities were visited in Fianarantsoa, 19 - in Toamasina, 24 - in Mahajanga, 12 - in Toliara and 8 - in Antsiranana.
In total, 113 health centers were visited. Approximately one-third of the health facilities (35%) were Type I. Due to closure of some health centers during either the first or the second round (or both rounds), researchers ended up with reliable panel data on 100 health centers.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The following survey instruments are available:
- Enquête au Niveau des Centres de Sante, Visite 1er Jour;
- Enquête au Niveau des Centres de Sante, Visite 2ème Jour;
- Enquête au Niveau des Centres de Sante de Base, Enquete Personnel;
- Enquête au Niveau des Centres de Sante, Enquete Phagdis;
- Questionnaire auprès des S.S.D.
In order to accurately investigate the resource flows through the different decentralized facility levels, surveys were organized at PhaGDis (Pharmacie à Gestion District/District Pharmacy) and CSB (Centre de Santé de Base/Basic Health Center) levels. At CSB level, the director was interviewed independently from the rest of the staff. To ensure compatibility, the surveys were organized at the same time. The discrict health authorities (SSD) questionnaire was administered during the second round.
Detailed information about data editing procedures is available in "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" in external resources.
STATA cleaning do-files and data quality reports can also be found in external resources.
Public use file
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
World Bank, UNICEF, Ministere de la Sante et de la Planification Familiale. Public Expenditure Tracking Survey in Health, Second Round (PETSHr2) 2007. Ref. MDG_2007_PETSHr2_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.