Expenditure and Service Delivery Survey in Education 2002
This study is a part of a larger project on education in Zambia. The overall project included the schools survey, provincial education offices and district education offices surveys, testing of students in sampled schools, the household survey and the student survey. The project covered households in a catchment area of 36 isolated schools. Researchers also proposed to re-test students who participated in tests under 2001 National Assessment Survey (NAS). As part of the re-testing exercise, 3,200 pupils formed the initial sample for the administration of tests in English, mathematics, and vernacular. In addition, 20 randomly chosen students from Grade V and Grade VI were interviewed for the student survey.
Documented here are datasets covering schools, Provincial Education Offices (PEO) and District Education Offices (DEO).
Education expenditures in Zambia (apart from teacher salaries) are distributed through an administrative hierarchy consisting of PEOs and DEOs. The survey data contain a detailed tracking of resources allocated by the government through this hierarchy to schools. Approaches of public expenditure tracking surveys (PETS) and quantitative service delivery surveys (QSDS) are integrated in this study.
The study was carried out by the Government of Zambia and the World Bank. It covered 184 primary (grades 1-7) and basic (grades 1-9) schools, 33 DEOs and four PEOs in four provinces: Lusaka, Copperbelt, Northern, and Eastern.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v01 - Final, edited datasets.
Documented here are final, cleaned datasets prepared by the World Bank based on raw datasets provided by the study researchers.
The description of the difference between raw and edited datasets is taken from "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" (p.10):
"Each country set includes two data files. The first file, the "raw" data file, presents the data as collected and entered by the survey teams. While field teams do conduct very high-level coherence tests with regards to responses collected, the data contained therein has generally not been thoroughly checked for internal coherence across questions, variable outliers and other such involved data cleaning procedures.
Finally, independently of the values presented in the questionnaires, missing values are replaced across all "final" data sets to ensure consistency across countries. Following industry best practices, negative 3-digit integers are used in order to ensure there is no confusion between missing values and valid data points. "
"Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" is available in external resources.
Lusaka, Copperbelt, Northern, and Eastern provinces.
A random sample stratified on the basis of urban and rural locations included 184 schools in 33 districts. The schools surveyed were chosen from a frame of primary (grades 1-7) and basic (grades 1-9) schools in four Zambian provinces: Lusaka, Copperbelt, Northern, and Eastern. The choice of these four provinces was dictated primarily by the variation in educational attainments, regional incomes, and administrative structures. Specifically, Lusaka and Copperbelt are the two richest provinces in Zambia, with high enrollment rates, and Northern and Eastern provinces are the poorest, with enrollment rates only marginally better than the worst performing Central province.
Since this study is linked to 2001 National Assessment Survey (NAS), the choice of schools in the sample was restricted by the sampling methodology of the NAS. The NAS sampling was based on a probability-proportional to size methodology. For this study, researchers surveyed about half the schools covered in NAS 2001. For details on sampling methodology, please refer to "Zambia ESDS 2002 Sampling Note " in external resources.
The Teacher Questionnaire was designed to examine two sorts of inputs that may impact on the performance of a teacher: first are the teacher-inputs such as demographic and educational characteristics and second are institutional inputs (primarily teacher salaries). The teacher questionnaire thus focuses on obtaining a basic demographic and educational profile of the teacher, and then moves on to asking about salary and allowances, as well as delays in the receipt of payments.
The Head-Teacher Questionnaire starts with the same sections as the teacher questionnaire. Several additional sections then probe the characteristics of teachers, pupils, parents (through the PTA section) and the administrative structure (through the Relationship with DEO/PEO sections). Finally the head-teacher questionnaire also contains a section on decisions and shortages, where we try to understand the nature of the financial constraints that schools are operating under.
The General School Questionnaire has a three-fold purpose. First, researchers believed that school infrastructure and location themselves may be important for learning achievement; the first few sections of this questionnaire thus systematically ask about the availability and condition of infrastructure in the school. Second, the questionnaire examines the characteristics of the student population in the school such as the overall profile of attendance and grade-repetition. Finally, the questionnaire links to the DEO/PEO questionnaire to complete the Public Expenditure Tracking exercise. To enable researchers to track the flow of resources, the questionnaire then asks about the receipt of resources from other levels of the administration such as the DEO and the PEO's offices.
The District Education Office and Provincial Education Office Questionnaires like the General School and the Head-Teacher Questionnaires, are designed to address two different components of the survey. Part II is concerned with the tracking of public expenditure-how much do the DEO and PEO offices receive? What are the primary expenses in these offices? Part I is similar in form to the head-teacher questionnaire, and asks about the demographic and educational characteristics of the DEO/PEO, before moving on to examine the views of the DEO on their relationship with schools (through visits and inspections) and the overall educational administration.
Head-Teacher Matching Roster and Pupil Matching Roster were designed to match students, who were tested in math and English and other subjects in 2001 and 2002, with teachers, and to carefully identify the changes that could have potentially affected students during the last year. The datasets documented here do not include test scores.
Detailed information about data editing procedures is available in "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" in external resources.
STATA cleaning do-files and data quality reports can also be found in external resources.
Public use file
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Government of the Republic of Zambia and World Bank. Expenditure and Service Delivery Survey in Education (ESDS) 2002. Ref. ZMB_2002_ESDS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.