The TKAPS is a follow-up to the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) which was implemented by the same organizations. The TKAPS differed from the TDHS in that it was implemented on a smaller sample and did not include a birth history or questions on health. The main purpose of the TKAPS was to produce up-to-date estimates of contraceptive knowledge and use that could be used to evaluate the USAID-funded Family Planning Services Support project. Another objective of the survey was to provide data on general knowledge about AIDS.
More specifically, the primary objective of the TKAPS is to provide information on awareness, approval, and use of family planning methods; unmet need for family planning services; fertility preferences; nuptiality; and knowledge regarding AIDS. This information is intended to assist policymakers and administrators in evaluating and designing programmes and strategies for improving family planning services and AIDS programs in the country.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of analysis
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-59
Unit of analysis
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-59
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Statistics
Macro international Inc.
United States Agency for International Development - Tanzania
Sample Design and Implementation
The sample for the 1994 TKAPS was national in scope, with the exclusion of only Zanzibar. In order to maximize efficiency and enhance the measurement of trends, sample points for the TKAPS were selected from those which had been chosen for the 1991/92 TDHS. The TDHS sample was a three-stage design, consisting of wards/branches at the first stage, census enumeration areas (EAs) at the second stage, and households at the third stage. Of the total of 357 EAs used in the TDHS, 203-57 urban and 146 rural were selected for the TKAPS.
The ratio of the sub-selection of TKAPS sample points from TDHS sample points was not uniform across the country. Although the TKAPS sample size was too small to obtain separate estimates for each of Tanzania's 20 mainland regions, estimates of most variables were obtained for groups of regions.
Regions were grouped into three geographically contiguous zones, as follows:
Coastal Zone: Tanga, Coast, Dares Salaam, Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma, and Morogoro;
Central Zone: Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Singida, Dodoma, Iringa, and Mbeya; and
Western Zone: Kagera, Mwanza, Mara, Shinyanga, Tabora, Rukwa, and Kigoma.
Based on TDHS results, the three zones correspond to medium, high and low contraceptive prevalence rates, respectively. Moreover, to meet the secondary objective of the TKAPS, namely to provide data on AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviour, it was decided to provide separate estimates of certain variables for Mwanza, Dodoma, lringa and Dares Salaam regions. Thus, the TKAPS sample over-selected EAs from the TDHS for these four regions relative to the other regions, such that there would be an expected minimum of 350 women interviewed in each. Whereas in the other regions, one-half of the selected households were designated for the men's survey, in these four regions, all households were selected for both the women's and men's surveys. Due to the oversampling of households in certain regions, the TKAPS sample is not self-weighting at the national level; consequently, the data presented in this report have been weighted to compensate.
After the selection of the TKAPS sample points, field staff from the Bureau of Statistics conducted a household listing operation in May and June 1994. A systematic sample of households was then selected from these lists, with an average "take" of 22 households in both urban and rural clusters for an expected total of about 4,466 households selected. As already mentioned, every second household was identified as selected for the male survey, meaning that, in addition to interviewing all women age 15-49, interviewers were also to interview all men age 15-59; in Dodoma, Iringa and Dares Salaam regions, all selected households were eligible for the male survey. 4 It was expected that the sample would yield interviews with approximately 4,500 women age 15-49 and over 2,500 men age 15-59.
A total of 4,496 dwelling units was selected from the household listings for the sample, from which 4,023 households were successfully interviewed. The shortfall is primarily due to dwellings that were vacant or in which the inhabitants had left for an extended period at the time they were visited by the interviewing teams. Of the 4,134 households encountered, 97 percent were successfully interviewed. In these households, 4,444 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview and interviews were completed for 4,225 or 95 percent of these. In those households that were selected for inclusion in the men's survey, 2,447 eligible men were identified, of which 2,097 or 86 percent were interviewed.
The principal reason for non-response among eligible women and men was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the household. The refusal rate was low (less than 1 percent among both women and men).
Note: See summarized responses rate by urban/rural in Table 1.1 which is provided in this documentation.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Three types of questionnaires were used for the TKAPS: a Household Questionnaire, a Women's Questionnaire, and a Men's Questionnaire. The contents of these questionnaires were based on the DHS Model B Questionnaire, as well as on the questionnaires used in the TDHS. As mentioned above, the birth history section and the sections on maternal and child health and nutrition were omitted from the TKAPS. Contents of the questionnaires were discussed with staff from the Family Planning Unit, the National AIDS Control Programme, the Institute of Public Health, the UNFPA, and USAID/Tanzania. The questionnaires were developed in English and then translated into and printed in Kiswahili.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors of selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including his/her age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for individual interview. In addition, information was collected about the dwelling itself, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used to construct the house, and ownership of various consumer goods.
The Women's Questionnaire was used to collect information from women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:
Background characteristics (age, education, religion, etc.),
Total number of children born,
Knowledge and use of family planning methods,
Husband's background and respondent's work, and
Awareness of AIDS.
The Men's Questionnaire contained most of the same questions as the Women's Questionnaire. Men were eligible if they were 15-59.
Bureau of Statistics
Other forms of data appraisal
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
Note: See these data quality tables in APPENDIX C of the final report.
MEASURE DHS believes that widespread access to survey data by responsible researchers has enormous advantages for the countries concerned and the international community in general. Therefore, MEASURE DHS policy is to release survey data to researchers after the main survey report is published, generally within 12 months after the end of fieldwork. with few limitations these data have been made available for wide use.
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Tanzania Bureau of Statistics and Macro International Inc, Calverton, Maryland USA. Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAP) 1994. Dataset downloaded from http://www.measuredhs.com on [date]
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