In many emerging democracies women are less likely to vote than men and, when they do vote, are likely to follow the wishes of male household and clan heads. We assess the impact of a voter awareness campaign on female turnout, candidate choice and party vote shares. Geographic clusters within villages were randomly assigned to treatment or control, and within treated clusters, some households were not targeted. Compared to women in control clusters, both targeted and untargeted women in treated clusters are 12 percentage points more likely to vote, and are also more likely to exercise independence in candidate choice, indicating large spillovers. Data from polling stations suggests that treating 10 women increased female turnout by about 7 votes, resulting in a cost per vote of US$ 3.1 Finally, a 10 percent increase in the share of treated women at the polling station led to a 6 percent decrease in the share of votes of the winning party.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of analysis
Rural areas of districts Sukkur and Khairpur in the southern province of Sindh.
Unit of analysis
The survey was administered to all women in the household above 18 years old as well as the male household head or the male spouse if the head was a woman.
Producers and sponsors
Development Research Group, The World Bank
Poverty and Equity Global Practice and Development Research Group, The World Bank
Development Research Group, World Bank
Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund
A typical sample cluster yielded about 15 sample households and 41 sample women. In total, 2,736 women from 1,018 households were reached. During the door-to-door visit, basic data on each sample household was collected, including the GPS location of the house and a basic roster of all adult women with their past voting record and the name and address of their closest friend or confidant in the village. The confidant was selected as follows: in every even numbered household, the confidant of a woman who was either a daughter or a daughter in law of the household head was selected, while in every odd numbered household, the confidant of the household head (if the head was a woman) or the head’s wife, sister, mother or aunt was selected. Not all households yielded at least one “eligible” woman using this rule, so the final sample includes 797 confidants. Of these, almost all were in the same cluster as the sample women who identified them, but only 18 confidants were also in a sampled household. The door-to-door visit took 20 to 25 minutes for treated households and 5 to 10 minutes for control households. No selected household refused to be interviewed, although in a few cases a repeat visit took place on the same day. None of the households refused to participate in the awareness campaign.
Vote verification took place between the evening of February 18th, Election Day, and allday February 19th. On the evening of February 19th, the survey firm sent out a field team to each village to check 10 percent of the verifier’s assignment at random. They found no significant differences. However, the village based vote verifiers were unable to locate 99 sample women (in 27 households), roughly 3 percent of the sample. The final sample, therefore, has 2637 women and 991 households. All 797 confidants were found and their vote verified. Attrition is, therefore, quite low and unrelated to treatment assignment (see Panel A, Appendix Table OA8). In addition, 158 women claimed to have cast a vote but did not have the requisite ink mark. To be conservative, we treat these women as not having voted although the results do not change when these women are coded as voters.
Dates of collection
Pre Election Survey
Post Election Survey
Mode of data collection
The questionnaires for this survey include:
- Pre-Election Visit Questionnaire: Due to time and budget constraints, only one of the control clusters in each village was included in the pre-election survey, with the exception of one large village in which two control clusters were selected.
- Voting Verification Form- For Village Informant
- Final Voting Questionnaire (Female) - The survey was administered to all women in the household above 18 years old as well as the male household head or the male spouse if the head was a woman
- Final Voting Questionnaire (Male) - The survey was administered to all women in the household above 18 years old as well as the male household head or the male spouse if the head was a woman
Research Consultants Lahore
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Giné, Xavier., Mansuri, G. World Bank. Pakistan Election Intervention Pre and Post Election Survey 2008, Together We Will: Experimental Evidence on Female Voting Behavior in Pakistan. Ref. PAK_2008_EIS_v01_M. Downloaded from [URI] on [Date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.