This is the second round of informal enterprise surveys conducted by the World Bank's Enterprise Analysis Unit. The first round was carried out in 2009 in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivore, Madagascar, Mauritius), Afghanistan and Nepal.
Informal surveys target unregistered enterprises, which in some countries make up a significant part of the economy. Understanding how informal businesses function and why they prefer to remain unregistered could help implement changes in government - business relationships.
Informal Surveys are usually conducted at the same time with Enterprise Surveys.
This research is a survey of unregistered businesses conducted in Rwanda from June to July 2011, simultaneously with Rwanda 2011 Enterprise Survey. Data from 240 informal businesses was analyzed.
The objective of World Bank firm-level surveys is to obtain feedback from enterprises in client countries on the state of the private sector, assess the constraints to private sector growth and create statistically significant business environment indicators that are comparable across countries.
Informal survey questionnaires are a shorter, tailored to unregistered businesses, version of Enterprise Survey questionnaires. The topics include general information about a business, infrastructure and services, sales and supplies, crime, sources and access to finance, business-government relationship, assets, AIDS and sickness (for African region), bribery, workforce composition, obstacles to get registration, reasons for not registering, and benefits that an establishment could get from registration. Business owners or managers are interviewed face-to-face.
The Informal Surveys are conducted using a uniform sampling methodology in order to minimize measurement error and yield data that are comparable across the world's economies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary sampling unit of Informal Surveys is an unregistered establishment. For Rwanda, informal firms were defined as those not registered with the Rwanda Development Board.
The scope of the study includes:
- characteristics of establishment and its owner;
- location and infrastructure;
- sales and supplies;
- AIDS and sickness;
- business environment;
Kigali and Butare
The whole population, or the universe, covered in the survey is the non-agricultural informal economy. It comprises manufacturing and services businesses.
Producers and sponsors
Implementation of the Africa 2011 Enterprise Surveys rollout
In each country, Informal Surveys are conducted in selected urban centers, which are intended to coincide with the locations for the implementation of the main Enterprise Surveys. The overall number of interviews is pre-determined, and these interviews are distributed between the two urban centers, according to criteria such as the level of business activity and each urban center's population, etc.
In Rwanda, the urban centers identified were Kigali and Butare. The target sample was 120 interviews for each urban center.
Sampling is conducted within clearly delineated sampling areas, which are geographically determined divisions within each urban center. Sampling areas are defined at the beginning of fieldwork, and are delineated according to the concentration and geographical dispersion of informal business activity. After the sampling sizes are defined for each location every city is divided into several areas that may or may not correspond to the administrative districts.
In both Kigali and Butare, for a total of 240 interviews, 16 sampling areas were identified: 12 in Kigali (Kimisagara, Muhima, Gitega, Nyamirambo, Remera, Gatsata, Gisozi, Kimironko, Rusororo/Kabuga, Gikondo, Gatenga and Kabeza/Kanombe) and 4 in Butare Mukoni, Rwabuye, Rwabuyanga, Centre Ville de Butare). Each area was divided in several sectors. In total 66 sectors were created.
In order to provide information on diverse aspects of the informal economy, the sample is designed to have equal proportions of services and manufacturing sectors (50:50). These sectors are defined by responses provided by each informal business to a question on the business's main activity included in the screener portion of the questionnaire.
As a general rule, services must constitute an ongoing business enterprise and so exclude the sale of manual labor. Manufacturing activity in the informal sector includes business activity requiring inputs and/or intermediate goods. Thus, for example, the processing of coffee, sugar, oil, dried fruit, or other processed foods is considered manufacturing, while the simple selling of these goods falls under services. If an informal business conducts a mixture of these activities, the business is considered under the manufacturing stratum.
Thus, each sampling area was designed with the goal of obtaining two interviews in services and two interviews in manufacturing. Each sampling area, including its two starting points, were delineated using Google maps, with the GPS coordinates of the starting points being systematically recorded.
The interviewers were instructed to attempt an interview at every address passed until 4 completed interviews were achieved. Once the 4 interviews were completed in each sector (two services and two manufacturing firms), the interviewer moved to the next start point.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Private contractors conduct the Enterprise Surveys on behalf of the World Bank. Due to sensitive survey questions addressing business-government relations and corruption-related topics, private contractors are preferred over any government agency or an organization/institution associated with government, and are hired by the World Bank to collect the data.
At the beginning of each survey, a screening procedure is conducted in order to identify eligible interviewees. At this point, a full description of all the activities of the business owner or manager is taken; based on its principal activity, a business is then classified in the manufacturing or services stratum using a list of activities developed from previous iterations of the survey. Certain activities are excluded such as strictly illegal activities (e.g., prostitution or drug trafficking) as well as individual activities that are forms of selling labor like domestic servants or windshield washers.
OutReach Development Solutions
One version of the questionnaire was used for all interviews.
Data entry and quality controls are implemented by the contractor and data is delivered to the World Bank in batches (typically 10%, 50% and 100%). These data deliveries are checked for logical consistency, out of range values, skip patterns, and duplicate entries. Problems are flagged by the World Bank and corrected by the implementing contractor through data checks, callbacks, and revisiting establishments.
All variables are named using, first, the letter of each section and, second, the number of the variable within the section, i.e. a1 denotes section A, question 1 (some exceptions apply due to comparability reasons). Variable names proceeded by a prefix "AF" indicate questions specific to Africa, therefore, they may not be found in the implementation of the rollout in other countries. All other suffixed variables are global and are present in all country surveys over the world. All variables are numeric with the exception of those variables with an "x" at the end of their names. The suffix "x" denotes that the variable is alpha-numeric.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
Aggregate indicators based on Enterprise Analysis Unit data are available to the public at http://www.enterprisesurveys.org
Firm-level data is also available to the public free-of-charge. In order to access the firm-level data, users must agree to abide by a strict confidentiality agreement available through Enterprise Analysis Unit website by clicking on "External users register here" at http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/Portal
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online)
The World Bank. Rwanda Informal Survey (InS) 2011, Ref. RWA_2011_InS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.