The Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme conducted in 2010 by UNICEF and the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS). The survey provides valuable information on the situation of children, women and men in Serbia, and was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey represents a large source of data for reporting on progress towards the aforementioned goals. The survey provides a rich foundation of comparative data for comprehensive progress reporting, especially regarding the situation of the most vulnerable children (children in the poorest households, Roma children or those living in rural areas). It also provides important information for the new UNICEF Country Programme 2011-2015 as well as the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2011-2015. This final report presents the results of the indicators and topics covered in the survey.
Datasets documented here cover Serbia national sample representative of the whole population of Serbia (refer to Serbia sample). At the national level a total of 6,885 households were selected: 3,650 households with children and 3,235 households without children. A stratified, two-stage random sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
Unit of analysis
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household, and all men aged 15-29 years.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, and for 4 regions: Belgrade, Vojvodina, Sumadija and Western Serbia and Southern and Eastern Serbia, for urban and rural areas, of the country.
A stratified, two-stage random sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Serbia MICS4 was calculated as 6,800 households and 400 enumeration areas, considering the proposed formula and budget available. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the percentage of children aged 0-4 years who had had Acute Respiratory infections.
The resulting number of households from this exercise was about 23,000 households, which is the sample size needed to provide a large number of children under 5 (about 3,500) for drawing reliable conclusions. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of households in the sample, but not to lose estimation reliability, the stratification of the sample into categories with and without children aged 0-4 years was needed. The required number of households in each category was obtained supposing an overall sample of 6,800 households, 400 clusters and same number of households with children under 5 per cluster. Assuming one child under 5 per household and considering the required number of sample children, the total sample size was calculated as 3,600 (9 per cluster) households with children under 5 and 3,200 (8 per cluster) of households without children under 5. Thus, the overall number of households to be selected per cluster was determined as 17 households. The final target number of sample households with children per cluster was increased to 10 (12 for Belgrade region) in order to compensate for sample clusters with less households with children found in the listing.
Stratification of enumeration areas for Serbia was done according to type of settlement (urban and rural), and 25 Areas (Belgrade, West Backa, South Banat, South Backa, North Banat, North Backa, Central Banat, Srem, Zlatibor,Kolubara, Macva, Moravica, Pomoravlje, Rasina, Raška, Šumadija, Bor, Branicevo, Zajecar, Jablanica, Nišava, Pirot, Danube, Pcinja, and Toplica).
A proportional allocation of the sample based on the number of households in the urban and rural domains of the 25 Areas was slightly adjusted. At the level of Serbia, the number of enumeration areas for the rural domain was reduced by 10 enumeration areas and allocated to the urban domain, where the non-response rate was expected to be higher (about 20%). The table below shows the allocation of clusters to the sampling strata.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Final Report" pp.257-260.
The response rate of households is 94 percent. (Of the 6,885 households selected for the sample, 6,803 were found to be occupied. Of these, 6,392 were successfully interviewed.)
The response rate of women is 93 percent within interviewed households. (In the interviewed households, 5,797 women aged between 15-49 years were identified. Of these, 5,385 were successfully interviewed.)
The response rate of children is 99 percent within interviewed households. (3,398 children under five years of age were listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 3,374 of these children.)
The response rate of men is 82 percent within interviewed households.(1,938 men aged between 15-29 years were identified. Of these, 1,583 were successfully interviewed.)
Overall response rates of 87, 93 and 77 percent respectively are calculated for the women’s, under-5’s and men’s interviews.
Sample weights were calculated for each of the data files.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal value of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in a particular sampling stratum, from certain Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) within certain category. The sampling fraction is the product of the probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRhc = Number of interviewed households in stratum hc /Number of sample occupied households in stratum hc
The non-response adjustment factors for women’s, under 5’s and men’s questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. The numbers of eligible women, under-5 children and men were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area and second stage stratum (with/without children).These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by dividing the aforementioned design weights by the average design weight at the national level. The average design weight is calculated as the sum of the design weights divided by the unweighted total). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women’s, under-5’s and men’s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.08 and 9.43 in the 400 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
There is one supervisor for each of the 15 data collection teams in the field.
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age and relationship. The household questionnaire includes household listing form, education, water and sanitation, household characteristics, child discipline and hand washing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49, children under age five and men age 15-29. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or primary caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire includes woman's background, access to mass media and ICT, child mortality, desire for last birth, maternal and newborn health, illness symptoms, contraception, unmet need, and attitudes toward domestic violence, marriage/union, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and life satisfaction.
The children's questionnaire includes child's age, birth registration, early childhood development, breastfeeding, care of illness, and anthropometry.
The men's questionnaire includes man's background, access to mass media and ICT, marriage/union, contraception, attitudes toward domestic violence, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and life satisfaction.
The questionnaires were developed in English from the MICS4 Model Questionnaires, and were translated into Serbian. The Serbian versions were pre-tested in Belgrade during September 2010 and modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires based on the results of the pre-test.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
Data was entered using the CSPro software. The data entry was carried out on 10 microcomputers by 20 data entry operators and 4 data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to Serbia’s questionnaire were used throughout.
Data processing began simultaneously with data collection and was completed in March 2011. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software programme, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose.
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2se or r – 2se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Five of the selected indicators are based on household members, 18 are based on women, 8 are based on men and 12 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
Other forms of data appraisal
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Men’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of places for hand washing
- Observation of under-5s birth certificates
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 2–14 years for the child discipline module
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Final Report" pp.280-290.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010, Ref. SRB_2010_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.