Encuesta de Productividad de Empresas (Survey of Enterprise Productivity) 2007
The majority of firms in many developing countries are informal. Bolivia has the highest level of informality in Latin America, according to 2007 World Bank data. While there are several levels of registration with the government, firms understand formality as registering for a tax identification number (NIT).
Encuesta de Productividad de Empresas (Survey of Enterprise Productivity) is a detailed firm survey that was carried out in Bolivia in March and April 2007. The study was designed as part of World Bank's economic and sector work (ESW) to understand the costs and benefits of formality. Researchers used GPS coordinates to measure the distance of a firm to the tax registration office, and to control for the distance to the city center and to the municipal registration office. The distance to the tax office was then used as an instrument for formalizing.
The survey covered micro- and small enterprises in four largest cities - La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz and Cochabamba - with additional research conducted in several rural areas. Six industries were chosen for the survey: grocery stores, restaurants and food sales, manufacturing of clothing from wool and cloth, transportation of passengers and cargo, manufacturing of clothing from camelid wool (from llamas and alpacas), and manufacturing of furniture from wood. Overall, the survey covered 629 businesses.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
- v01: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba and several rural areas.
Unit of analysis
- micro firms (less than five workers),
- small firms (5-20 workers).
Six industries were chosen for the survey: grocery stores, restaurants and food sales, manufacturing of clothing from wool and cloth, transportation of passengers and cargo, manufacturing of clothing from camelid wool (from llamas and alpacas), and manufacturing of furniture from wood. The industries were chosen to represent a large portion of the self-employed and small employers, and to encompass a diversity of sectors. According to the 2005 Bolivian Living Standards Measurement Survey, the industries chosen include four of the top five industries for urban small and medium enterprises and cover approximately 40% of all self-employed and employers.
Producers and sponsors
Yaye Seynabou Sakho
The sample frame consisted of a geographic information database maintained by the survey firm. This database is based on a census of all economic establishments in these cities carried out in August 2005, and includes enterprises operating within households. This was supplemented with data for the transportation sector on all firms that have registered their cars. This provided a reasonably comprehensive sampling frame for urban areas. The sample was stratified across cities and firm size, in order to include a mix of micro firms (with less than five workers), and small firms with 5-20 workers. The sample used here is almost equally divided across the four cities. Groceries, Food, and Transportation each constitute about 20% of the sample, Clothing from wool and cloth and manufacturing from wood each constitute 15% of the sample, and clothing from camelids the remaining 10%.
A sample frame was not available for rural areas, and therefore snowball sampling method was used to survey camelid and wood firms in rural areas.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Encuestas y Estudios
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the primary investigator,
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation),
- the survey reference number,
- the source and date of download.
David McKenzie, World Bank, Yaye Seynabou Sakho, World Bank. Encuesta de Productividad de Empresas (Survey of Enterprise Productivity) (EPE) 2007, Ref. BOL_2007_EPE_v01_M, Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.