Demographic and Health Survey (standard) - DHS III
The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey is the third survey of this type conducted in Indonesia.
The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a follow-on project to the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) and to the 1991 IDHS. The 1994 IDHS was significantly expanded from prior surveys to include two new modules in the women's questionnaire, namely maternal mortality and awareness of AIDS. The survey also investigated the availability of family planning and health services, which provides an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning and child health care with the availability of services. The 1994 IDHS also included a household expenditure module, which provides a means of identifying the household's economic status.
The 1994 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality and awareness of AIDS that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs;
- Provide data about availability of family planning and health services, thereby offering an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning and child-care behavior with the availability of services;
- Provide data on household expenditures, which can be used to identify the household's economic status;
- Provide data that can be used to analyze trends over time by examining many of the same fertility, mortality and health issues that were addressed in the earlier surveys (1987 NICPS and 1991 IDHS);
- Measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors that affect the changes, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception;
- Measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- HH Expenditure
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Maternal Mortality
- Reproductive Calendar
- Service Availability
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS)
State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Ministry of Health
Macro International Inc.
Technical assistance and some funding
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
Indonesia is divided into 27 provinces. For the implementation of its family planning program, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) has divided these provinces into three regions as follows:
- Java-Bali: DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, DI Yogyakarta, East Java, and Bali
- Outer Java-Bali I: Dista Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi
- Outer Java-Bali II: Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, East Nusa Tenggara, East Timer, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya
The 1990 Population Census of Indonesia shows that Java-Bali accounts for 62 percent of the national population, Outer Java-Bali I accounts for 27 percent, and Outer Java-Bali II accounts for 11 percent. The sample for the 1994 IDHS was designed to produce reliable estimates of fertility, contraceptive prevalence and other important variables for each of the provinces and for urban and rural areas of the three regions.
In order to meet this objective, between 1,650 and 2,050 households were selected in each of the provinces in Java-Bali, 1,250 to 1,500 households in the ten provinces in Outer Java-Bali I, and 1,000 to 1,250 households in each of the provinces in Outer Java-Bali II, for a total of 35,500 households. With an average of 0.8 ever-married women 15-49 per household, the sample was expected to yield approximately 28,000 women eligible for the individual interview.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 35,510 households were selected for the survey, of which 34,060 were found. Of the encountered households, 33,738 (99.1 percent) were successfully interviewed. In these households, 28,800 eligible women were identified and complete interviews were obtained from 28,168 women, or 97.8 percent of all eligible women. Generally high response rates for both household and individual interviews were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the role to revisit the originally selected household if no one was at home initially. No substitution for the originally selected households was allowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the household or eligible woman.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The pretest for the 1994 IDHS was carried out in three provinces: Bengkulu, Central Java, and South Kalimantan. For each province, a team was trained consisting of one field coordinator, one supervisor, one field editor, and four or five interviewers. The Chief of the Population Statistics Division of the Provincial Statistics Office (PSO) in each province acted as field coordinator and was responsible for carrying out the pretest activities in his/her province. All of the fieldworkers were full time PSO staff.
The pretest training began in December 1993 with training of trainers, which was conducted by the CBS staff in their central office. Fieldworker training was held for two weeks in January 1994, followed by the data collection, which lasted for two weeks.
For the pretest fieldwork, a total of 300 households located in 6 urban and 6 rural sample clusters were visited. They yielded 232 ever-married women age 15-49, confirming the estimate of approximately 0.8 eligible women per household. At the request of The World Bank, the pretest household schedule included a sheet used for collecting information on the household's average monthly expenditures. During the fieldwork, it was found that the household expenditure questionnaire extended the interview time considerably. Administering it before the individual questionnaire was created a serious problem for the women's questionnaire, because the respondent became fatigued even before the main interview began.
Problems encountered during the pretest training and fieldwork was discussed and errors were corrected by the survey staff. It was decided that the household expenditure questionnaire would be administered separately. Based on the experience in the field trial, the service availability questionnaire was changed to include health and family planning facilities located within 10 kilometers of the sample cluster in urban areas and within 30 kilometers in rural areas.
FIELD STAFF TRAINING
Training of the survey field staff for the main survey was preceded by a course held in May 1994 in Bogor to prepare those who were to serve as instructors at the training centers, those who were responsible for the training centers, and the data processing staff.
Training for the main survey took place in nine locations: Medan, Jambi, Jakarta, Salatiga, Malang, Kupang, Samarinda, and Ujung Pandang. The training lasted for 16 days, from 6 to 21 June 1994, and covered the procedures for locating the sample households, conducting an interview, and filling out the forms. Mock interviews and field practice also were included in the training.
The 1994 IDHS data were collected by 260 interviewers, 86 field editors and 86 supervisors. Each of the 86 teams consisted of two to four interviewers, one field editor and one supervisor. As in previous DHS surveys, the number of teams in each province was determined by the number of clusters selected in the respective province and their distribution throughout the area. Due to the sensitive nature of some questions asked in the survey, all interviewers and field editors were female. However, for logistical and security reasons, male supervisors were used. Most of the survey fieldworkers were CBS staff at the province or regency/municipality level.
The teams completed work in each cluster before moving to the next cluster. Generally, the teams were responsible for arranging transportation between sample points. However, in some areas local statistics offices provided transportation. PSO and CBS staff visited the field periodically to monitor the progress of the fieldwork. The main survey fieldwork began in early July in Jakarta and East Java, and in the third week of July in the remaining provinces. It was completed in November 1994.
The 1994 IDHS used four questionnaires--three at the household level and one at the community level. The three questionnaires administered at the household level are the household questionnaire, an individual questionnaire for women, and the household expenditure questionnaire. The household and individual questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. A deviation from the standard DHS practice is the exclusion of the anthropometric measurement of young children and their mothers. Topics covered in the 1994 IDHS that were not included in the 1991 IDHS are knowledge of AIDS and maternal mortality. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made in order to provide detailed information specific to Indonesia. Except for the household expenditure module, the questionnaires were developed mainly in English and were translated into Babasa Indonesia. The household expenditure schedule was adapted from the core Susenas questionnaire model. Susenas is a national household survey carried out annually by BPS to collect data on various demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the population.
The first stage of data editing was carried out by the field editors who checked the completed questionnaires for thoroughness and accuracy. Field supervisors then further examined the questionnaires. In many instances, the teams sent the questionnaires to CBS through the regency/municipality statistics offices. In these cases, no checking was done by the PSO. At CBS, the questionnaires underwent another round of editing, primarily for completeness and coding of responses to open-ended questions.
The data were processed using 16 microcomputers and the DHS computer program, ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). Data entry and office editing were initiated immediately after fieldwork began. Simple range and skip errors were corrected at the data entry stage. Data processing was completed by November 1994, and the preliminary report of the survey was published in January 1995.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) non-sampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during implementation of the 1994 IDHS to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 1994 IDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
Sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 1994 IDHS sample is the result of a two-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 1994 IDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module. This module uses the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jacknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, and Macro International Inc., Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1994. Ref. IDN_DHS_1994_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.