The 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey is the first survey of this type conducted in Jordan under the international Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program.
The JPFHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health.
The 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was carried out as part of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program. The Demographic and Health Surveys is assisting governments and private agencies in the implementation of household surveys in developing countries.
The JPFIS was designed to provide information on levels and trends of fertility, infant and child mortality, and family planning. The survey also gathered information on breastfeeding, matemal and child health cam, the nutritional status of children under five, as well as the characteristics of households and household members.
The main objectives of the project include:
a) Providing decision makers with a data base and analyses useful for informed policy choices,
b) Expanding the international population and health data base,
c) Advancing survey methodology, and
d) Developing skills and resources necessary to conduct high quality demographic and health surveys in the participating countries.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS)/ Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Demographic Characteristics
- Respondent's Background and Household Characteristics
- Knowledge and Practice of Birth Control (Family Planning)
- Breastfeeding and Health
- Immunization, Morbidity and Child Mortality
- Fertility Preferences
- Husband's Background, Residence and Woman's Work
- Weight and Length
- Community Characteristics
- Availability of Public Services Nearest to or in the Cluster
- Health and Family Planning Programs in the Cluster
- Private Doctor/ Private Doctors' Clinic
- Health Center
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics (DOS)
Ministry of Planning
Ministry of Health, Jordan
IRD/Macro International Inc.
United States Agency for International Development
The sample for the JPFHS survey was selected to be representative of the major geographical regions, as well as the nation as a whole. The survey adopted a stratified, multi-stage sampling design. In each governorate, localities were classified into 9 strata according to the estimated population size in 1989. The sampling design also allowed for the survey results to be presented according to major cities (Amman, Irbid and Zarqa), other urban localities, and the rural areas. Localities with fewer than 5,000 people were considered rural.
For this survey, 349 sample units were drawn, containing 10,708 housing units for the individual interview. Since the survey used a separate household questionnaire, the Department of Statistics doubled the household sample size and added a few questions on labor force, while keeping the original individual sample intact. This yielded 21,172 housing units. During fieldwork for the household interview, it was found that 4,359 household units were ineligible either because the dwelling was vacant or destroyed, the household was absent during the team visit, or some other reason. There were 16,296 completed household interviews out of 16,813 eligible households, producing a response rate of 96.9 percent.
The completed household interviews yielded 7,246 women eligible for the individual interview, of which 6,461 were successfully interviewed, producing a response rate of 89.2 percent.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
For the individual interview, the number of eligible women found in the selected households and the number of women successfully interviewed are presented. The data indicate a high response rate for the household interview (96.9 percent), and a lower rate for the individual interview (89.2 percent). Women in large cities have a slightly lower response rate (88.6 percent) than those in other areas. Most of the non-response for the individual interview was due to the absence of respondents and the postponement of interviews which were incomplete.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.1 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The household and individual questionnaires were pretested in July 1990 in a number of urban and rural clusters. All senior staff members of the survey organization participated in this activity. The field staff for the pretest was made up of female university graduates hired through the government recruitment office. To assist in the survey activities, particularly in regard to obtaining health information, the Ministry of Health provided a number of staff nurses.
Pretest training, which lasted three weeks, involved class discussion and field practice. Staffs from the Ministry of Health and the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Agency were invited to give talks on their respective area of expertise. The pretest teams were also trained to carry out supervisory tasks, since they were expected to act as supervisors or field editors during the main fieldwork. Anthropometric measurements were not included in the pretest because the scales and boards were not available. The pretest revealed some minor problems in the questionnaire skip patterns, which were corrected.
Prior to the main survey fieldwork, mapping was carried out and the enumeration areas/blocks were selected. During this process, buildings and dwelling units in the areas were listed and numbered. The selected clusters were identified and marked with large signs on the buildings forming the corners of the clusters. In the same activity, housing units were documented, along with the name of the owner/tenant of the unit, or household and the name of the household head. A large proportion (almost 17 pereen0 of the housing units were vacant. These activities were completed in between September 26 and October 10, 1990.
Fieldworkers for the main survey were hired through the government recruitment office. At the time of hiring, they were informed about the type of work they would be expected to do. All the interviewers had college degrees. Supervisors and field editors were selected from those who participated in the pretest. They were retained by the Department of Statistics after the pretest to assist in sampling activities.
Training of field workers was done in two stages; the first was training for the household interview. More than one hundred people participated in this activity. The household survey was carried out in September (ahead of the individual interview) to provide the government with much-needed data for planning purposes, particularly regarding employment and persons who returned from the Gulf countries. It should be noted that the fieldwork started after the crisis in the Gulf region began.
The training of interviewers and supervisors for the individual questionnaire lasted three weeks and was carded out concurrently at two training centers. One site was the Statistical Training Center in Amman, part of the Department of Statistics; the other was the regional statistical office in Irbid. The training was conducted by Dr. AbdaUah Zou'bi, the Survey Director, Mr. Kamal Saleh, a senior demographer, and Dr. Mohamed Ayad of IRD/Macro International. Much of the training consisted of lectures on how to conduct the interviews and how to fill out the questionnaires. Practice interviewing was done in the third week of training. Staffs from the Ministry of Health and the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Agency were invited to speak on issues related to their activities.
The main survey fieldwork was carried out from October to December 1990. Each of the 11 field teams was made up of one supervisor, one field editor, three interviewers, and one anthropometrist. The teams were equipped with scales and measuring boards to collect information on the height and weight of children. A vehicle was assigned to each team. All teams started working in Amman, Zarqa, Irbid, and Balqa and were stationed in the respective governorates. In other governorates teams were formed from the field staff who had worked in Amman, Irbid and Zarqa. Data collection in these governorates was carried out in the first week of November through the end of December 1990.
The 1990 JPFIS utilized two questionnaires, one for the household interview and the other for individual women. Both questionnaires were developed first in English and then translated into Arabic. The household questionnaire was used to list all members of the sample households, including usual residents as well as visitors. For each member of the household, basic demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded and women eligible for the individual interview were identified. To be eligible for individual interview, a woman had to be a usual member of the household (part of the de jure population), ever-married, and between 15 and 49 years of age. The household questionnaire was expanded from the standard DHS-II model questionnaire to facilitate the estimation of adult mortality using the orphanhood and widowhood techniques. In addition, the questionnaire obtained information on polygamy, economic activity of persons 15 years of age and over, family type, type of insurance covering the household members, country of work in the summer of 1990 which coincided with the Gulf crisis, and basic data for the calculation of the crude birth rate and the crude death rate. Additional questions were asked about deceased women if they were ever-married and age 15-49, in order to obtain information for the calculation of materoal mortality indices.
The individual questionnaire is a modified version of the standard DHS-II model "A" questionnaire. Experience gained from previous surveys, in particular the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey, and the questionnaire developed by the Pan Arab Project for Child Development (PAPCHILD), were useful in the discussions on the content of the JPFHS questionnaire. A major change from the DHS-II model questionnaire was the rearrangement of the sections so that the marriage section came before reproduction; this allowed the interview to flow more smoothly. Questions on children's cause of death based on verbal autopsy were added to the section on health, which, due to its size, was split into two parts. The first part focused on antenatal care and breastfeeding; the second part examined measures for prevention of childhood diseases and information on the morbidity and mortality of children loom since January 1985. As questions on sexual relations were considered too sensitive, they were replaced by questions about the husband's presence in the household during the specified time period; this served as a proxy for recent sexual activity.
The JPFHS individual questionnaire consists of nine sections:
- Respondent's background and household characteristics
- Breastfeeding and health
- Immunization, morbidity, and child mortality
- Fertility preferences
- Husband's background, residence, and woman's work
- Height and weight of children
Data processing started almost immediately aRer the field work began. Field editors checked the questionnaires for completeness and consistency. Supervisors also checked completed questionnaires on a sample basis with more emphasis in the first few days of the fieldwork. Questionnaires were then sent to the central office in Amman, where they were again hand edited and the open-ended questions were coded.
Data entry started one week after the beginning of fieldwork, using eight microcomputers. The process of data entry, editing and cleaning was done with ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis) programs specially designed for DHS surveys. These activities took place through the first week of March 1991. Under normal circumstances, the DHS data processing specialist would have made a trip to Jordan toward the end of the fieldwork, to identify problems associated with data entry and editing, and to work on tabulations for the preliminary report. However, due to the Gulf crisis in early 1991, this trip was delayed. Instead, the survey data were sent to the DHS office in Columbia, Maryland, and it was not until May 1991 that preparations for the preliminary report were begun.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The results from sample surveys are affected by two types of errors, non-sampling error and sampling error. Nonsampling error is due to mistakes made in carrying out field activities, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, errors in the way the questions are asked, misunderstanding on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, data entry errors, etc. Although efforts were made during the design and implementation of the JPFHS to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be measured statistically. The sample of women selected in the JPFHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each one would have yielded results that differed somewhat from the actual sample selected. The sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples; although it is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
Sampling error is usually measured in terms of standard error of a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which one can reasonably assured that, apart from nonsampling errors, the true value of the variable for the whole population falls. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that same statistic as measured in 95 percent of all possible samples with the same design (and expected size) will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic.
If the sample of women had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the JPFI-IS sample design depended on stratification, stages and clusters. Consequently, it was necessary to utilize more complex formulas. The computer package CLUSTERS, developed by the International Statistical Institute for the World Fertility Survey, was used to assist in computing the sampling errors with the proper statistical methodology.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar year since birth
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Department of Statistics (DOS), Jordan and IRD/Macro International Inc., Columbia, Maryland USA.Jordan Demographic and Health Survey/Population and Family Health Survey 1990. Ref. JOR_1990_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.