Demographic and Health Survey (standard) - DHS III
The 1997 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey is the second survey of this type conducted in Jordan under the international Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program.
The 1997 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) is a national sample survey carried out by the Department of Statistics (DOS) as part of its National Household Surveys Program (NHSP). The JPFHS was specifically aimed at providing information on fertility, family planning, and infant and child mortality. Information was also gathered on breastfeeding, on maternal and child health care and nutritional status, and on the characteristics of households and household members. The survey will provide policymakers and planners with important information for use in formulating informed programs and policies on reproductive behavior and health.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 1997 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS)/ Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Maternal Mortality
- Reproductive Calendar
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics (DOS)
United States Agency for International Development
SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
The 1997 JPFHS sample was designed to produce reliable estimates of major survey variables for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, for the three regions (each composed of a group of governorates), and for the three major governorates, Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa.
The 1997 JPFHS sample is a subsample of the master sample that was designed using the frame obtained from the 1994 Population and Housing Census. A two-stage sampling procedure was employed. First, primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected with probability proportional to the number of housing units in the PSU. A total of 300 PSUs were selected at this stage. In the second stage, in each selected PSU, occupied housing units were selected with probability inversely proportional to the number of housing units in the PSU. This design maintains a self-weighted sampling fraction within each governorate.
UPDATING OF SAMPLING FRAME
Prior to the main fieldwork, mapping operations were carried out and the sample units/blocks were selected and then identified and located in the field. The selected blocks were delineated and the outer boundaries were demarcated with special signs. During this process, the numbers on buildings and housing units were updated, listed and documented, along with the name of the owner/tenant of the unit or household and the name of the household head. These activities took place between January 7 and February 28, 1997.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 7,924 occupied housing units were selected for the survey; from among those, 7,592 households were found. Of the occupied households, 7,335 (97 percent) were successfully interviewed. In those households, 5,765 eligible women were identified, and complete interviews were obtained with 5,548 of them (96 percent of all eligible women). Thus, the overall response rate of the 1997 JPFHS was 93 percent. The principal reason for nonresponse among the women was the failure of interviewers to find them at home despite repeated callbacks.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.1 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The household and individual questionnaires were pretested in April and March 1997 in a number of urban and rural clusters outside of those selected for the actual survey. All senior staff members of the survey participated in this activity. The field staff for the pretest consisted of highly qualified and experienced female interviewers.
Pretest training, which lasted three weeks, included class discussions, role playing, and field practice. Staff from the MOHHC and the JFPPA were invited to give lectures on their respective areas of expertise. In addition, the pretest teams were trained to carry out supervisory tasks, since they were expected to act as supervisors or field editors during the main fieldwork. The pretest revealed some minor phrasing problems in the questionnaire, which were corrected.
RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING OF STAFF
Different supervisory and executive levels of survey staff members were recruited, according to certain criteria such as experience, educational and personal qualifications, and familiarity with geographic areas. Fieldworkers for the main survey were recruited from among those who participated in the 1994 census as well as those who took part in other demographic surveys conducted by the DOS. The interviewers were all highly qualified females. Supervisors and field editors were selected from those who participated in the pretest. They were retained by the DOS after the pretest to assist in sampling activities.
The training of interviewers, field editors, and supervisors for both the household and the individual questionnaires lasted three weeks, from May 10 to June 5, 1997. Six staff members versed in specific aspects pertaining to family planning, maternal health, child health, and AIDS, participated in this activity. Much of the training consisted of lectures on how to conduct the interviews and how to fill out the questionnaires. Practice interviewing was done in the third week of training. Staff from the MOHHC and the JFPPA were invited to speak on issues related to their activities.
The survey fieldwork was organized in such a way as to ensure control over field logistics by DOS field offices all over the country. The workload, the dispersion of sample units, and transportation facilities served as criteria for identifying the number of field staff in each area. Field staff consisted of five controllers (males), eight supervisors, eight field editors, and eight teams of five interviewers each. Fieldwork was carried out between June 7 and October 31, 1997.
To facilitate data collection, each interviewing team was assigned a number of blocks in the sample area. Each supervisor divided his team so as to ensure that all adjacent sampled households were completed by one interviewer. To ensure good data quality, interviewers were asked to conduct fewer interviews during the first three days of data collection. The questionnaires were spot-checked by the field editor and/or the supervisor. Errors were corrected by the interviewers, discussions with the editor or, in some cases, by callbacks to the respective households. To maintain consistency, information on common errors or unusual cases were passed to all supervisors in the area. The field editor and/or the supervisor conducted spot-checks by randomly visiting some sampled households and completing some parts of the same questionnaire (previously filled in by the interviewer). Both questionnaires were then matched and any differences were discussed. Interviewers made repeated attempts by calling back to interview eligible respondents who were not home at the time of the first visit or to persuade eligible women who were reluctant to be interviewed.
The 1997 JPFHS used two questionnaires, one for the household interview and the other for eligible women. Both questionnaires were developed in English and then translated into Arabic. The household questionnaire was used to list all members of the sampled households, including usual residents as well as visitors. For each member of the household, basic demographic and social characteristics were recorded and women eligible for the individual interview were identified. The individual questionnaire was developed utilizing the experience gained from previous surveys, in particular the 1983 and 1990 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Surveys (JFFHS).
The 1997 JPFHS individual questionnaire consists of 10 sections:
- Respondent’s background
- Reproduction (birth history)
- Pregnancy, breastfeeding, health and immunization
- Fertility preferences
- Husband’s background, woman’s work and residence
- Knowledge of AIDS
- Maternal mortality
- Height and weight of children and mothers.
Fieldwork and data processing activities overlapped. After a week of data collection, and after field editing of questionnaires for completeness and consistency, the questionnaires for each cluster were packaged together and sent to the central office in Amman where they were registered and stored. Special teams were formed to carry out office editing and coding.
Data entry started after a week of office data processing. The process of data entry, editing, and cleaning was done by means of the ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis) program DHS has developed especially for such surveys. The ISSA program allows data to be edited while being entered. Data entry was completed on November 14, 1997. A data processing specialist from Macro made a trip to Jordan in November and December 1997 to identify problems in data entry, editing, and cleaning, and to work on tabulations for both the preliminary and final report.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are subject to two types of errors: nonsampling errors and sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the result of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing (such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding questions either by the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors). Although during the implementation of the 1997 JPFHS numerous efforts were made to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are not only impossible to avoid but also difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The respondents selected in the 1997 JPFHS constitute only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, given the same design and expected size. Each of those samples would have yielded results differing somewhat from the results of the sample actually selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability among all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, since the 1997 JDHS-II sample resulted from a multistage stratified design, formulae of higher complexity had to be used. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 1997 JDHS-II was the ISSA Sampling Error Module, which uses the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the survey report.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Department of Statistics (DOS), Jordan and Macro International, Calverton, Maryland USA. Jordan Demographic and Health Survey/Population and Family Health Survey 1997. Ref. JOR_1997_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.