Dataset used for Aart C. Kraay et al. "Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators for 1996-2004".
The paper presents the latest update of the aggregate governance indicators, together with new analysis of several issues related to the use of these measures.
They cover 209 countries and territories for 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004. They are based on several hundred individual variables measuring perceptions of governance, drawn from 37 separate data sources constructed by 31 different organizations.
The authors present estimates of the six dimensions of governance for each period, as well as margins of error capturing the range of likely values for each country. These margins of error are not unique to perceptions-based measures of governance, but are an important feature of all efforts to measure governance, including objective indicators. In fact, the authors provide examples of how individual objective measures provide an incomplete picture of even the quite particular dimensions of governance that they are intended to measure.
The authors also analyze in some detail changes over time in their estimates of governance; provide a framework for assessing the statistical significance of changes in governance; and suggest a simple rule of thumb for identifying statistically significant changes in country governance over time. The ability to identify significant changes in governance over time is much higher for our aggregate indicators than for any individual indicator. While they find that the quality of governance in a number of countries has changed significantly (in both directions), they also provide evidence suggesting that there are no trends, for better or worse, in global averages of governance. Finally, the authors interpret the strong observed correlation between income and governance, and argue against recent efforts to apply a discount to governance performance in low income countries.
Kind of data
Aggregate data [agg]
Producers and sponsors
Aart C. Kraay, Daniel Kaufmann and Massimo Mastruzzi
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Aart C. Kraay et al. Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators 1996-2004. Ref. WLD_2004_GM_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.