The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 4) 2011 is a part of the UNICEF - GOB Programme of Cooperation to monitor the progress of boys and girls development in Belize. MICS provides updated statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education, child protection (including disabilities), water and sanitation and HIV and AIDS. The survey provides information on the prevalence of child mortality, stunting, wasting, underweight, and obesity; breastfeeding and supplementary feeding practices, including the immunization status of children. Information is also provided on the prevalence of diarrhea and pneumonia among young children and treatment sought. Valuable data on health practices, including access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation, and knowledge about HIV and AIDS are made available. Belize would also have data on child development, child protection and life satisfaction. The findings from the MICS are one of the most important sources of data used as a basis for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: Household Information Panel, Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Insecticide Treated Nets, Child Labor, Child Discipline, and Hand Washing.
- Women: Women Information Panel, Woman's Background, Child Mortality, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post Natal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Marriage/Union, Attitudes towards Domestic Violence, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS and Life Satisfaction.
- Children under five: Under Five Information Panel, Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Immunization and Anthropometry.
- Child disability (2-9 years old): Child Disability Questionnaire Form, Child Disability.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household and all children between the ages of 2 and 9 years.
Producers and sponsors
Statistical Institute of Belize
United Nations Children’s Fund
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
Dr.Nathalia Largaespada Beer
Ministry of Health
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport
Mr. John Flowers
Ministry of Human Development, Social Transformation and Poverty Alleviation
Ministry of Human Development, Social Transformation and Poverty Alleviation
Ms. Ann Marie Williams
National Aids Commission
Mr. Dylan Williams
National Committee for Families and Children
University of Belize, Policy Observatory
The primary objective of the sample design for the Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the seven regions Corozal, Orange Walk, Belize City South Side, Belize Other, Cayo, Stann Creek and Toledo of the country. Urban and rural areas in each of the seven regions were defined as the sampling strata.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Belize MICS was calculated as 4,900 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the vitamin A supplementation prevalence among children aged 0-4 years.
Equal allocation of the total sample size to the seven regions was used. The resulting number of households from this exercise was 700 households which is the sample size needed in each region - thus yielding about 4,900 households in total. The average number of households selected per cluster for the Belize MICS was determined as 25 households, based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of sample households per cluster, it was calculated that 28 sample clusters (enumeration districts or EDs) would need to be selected in each region.
Therefore, 28 clusters (EDs) were allocated to each region, with the final sample size calculated at 4,900 households (28 clusters * 7 regions * 25 sample households per cluster). In each region, the clusters (primary sampling units) were distributed to urban and rural domains, proportional to the number of households in the urban and rural areas of that region. The table below shows the allocation of clusters to the sampling strata.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 - Final Report" pp.183.-187.
Of the 4,900 households selected for the sample, 4,608 were found to be occupied. Of these, 4,424 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 96.0 percent. In the interviewed households, 4,485 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 4,096 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 91.3 percent within interviewed households. In addition, 1,982 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 1,946 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98.2 percent within interviewed households. A total of 3,287 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years were identified and Disability Questionnaires were completed for 3,234 of these children yielding a response rate of 98.4 percent. Overall response rates of 87.8 percent and 94.3 percent are calculated for the women’s and under-5’s interviews respectively.
Sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
Thirteen primary sampling units (PSU) were used in producing the sample of households:
Corozal urban, Corozal rural, Orange Walk urban , Orange Walk rural, Belize other urban, Belize Other rural, Belize City South Side, Cayo urban, Cayo rural, Stann Creek urban, Stann Creek rural, Toledo urban, Toledo rural.
Seven strata (regions) were used: Corozal, Orange Walk, Belize District (Excluding Belize City South Side), Belize City South Side, Cayo, Stann Creek and Toledo and enumeration districts (ED) constitute the clusters. It was decided that 28 clusters (ED) would be chosen from each stratum and that 25 households would be chosen from each selected ED.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum and PSU. The sampling fraction for the sample PSU in the stratum is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum h/ Number of occupied households listed in stratum h
After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. The non-response adjustment factors for women’s and under-5’s questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for nonresponse) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the un-weighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for nonresponse). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women’s and under-5’s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.452178 and 1.768905 in the 196 sample enumeration districts (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman or under-5 with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 7 survey teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted in two phases. The training of trainers was conducted from 30th May to 8th June, 2011 in Belmopan City and the ten-day main training of field staff was conducted from 13th June to 24th June, 2011 in Belize City at a centralized location. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Time was spent becoming familiar with the various vaccination cards in use and all field staff were trained in the use of the anthropomorphic measuring tools. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent one day in practice interviewing in several enumeration districts in Belize City.
The data were collected by seven teams; each was comprised of four interviewers, one driver, one editor and one field supervisor. Even though the MICS programme requires the use of a dedicated Measurer as part of each data collection team, in Belize MICS 2011 measuring was done by the field supervisor with assistance as needed from the editor. One standby interviewer was provided for each team in the event that an interviewer was unable to continue working. Fieldwork began on 13th June, 2011 and concluded on 5th August, 2011.
Statistical Institute of Belize
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered to a knowledgeable adult living in the household. The household questionnaire includes Household Information Panel, Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Insecticide Treated Nets, Child Labor, Child Discipline, and Hand Washing.
In addition to a household questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households. The women's questionnaire includes Women Information Panel, Woman's Background, Child Mortality, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post Natal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Marriage/Union, Attitudes towards Domestic Violence, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS and Life Satisfaction.
The Questionnaire for Children Under-Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age1 living in the households. The children's questionnaire includes Under Five Information Panel, Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Immunization and Anthropometry.
The Questionnaire for Child Disability was also administered to mothers or primary caretakers of children between the ages of 2 and 9 years. The questionnaire includes Child Disability Questionnaire Form, Child Disability.
Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered on six microcomputers and carried out by six data entry operators and two data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the Belize questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in June, 2011 and was completed in September, 2011. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
• Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
• Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
• Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
• Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and un-weighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-five questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of women's health cards
- Observation of children under 5 birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 2-14 years for the child discipline module
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix F in document "Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 - Final Report" pp.210-220.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate research, with the condition that we receive a description of the objectives of any research project that will be using the data prior to authorizing their distribution.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
United Nations Children's Fund, Statistical Institute of Belize. Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011, Ref. BLZ_2011_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.