The STEP (Skills Toward Employment and Productivity) Measurement program is the first ever initiative to generate internationally comparable data on skills available in developing countries. The program implements standardized surveys to gather information on the supply and distribution of skills and the demand for skills in labor market of low-income countries.
The uniquely-designed Household Survey includes modules that measure the cognitive skills (reading, writing and numeracy), socio-emotional skills (personality, behavior and preferences) and job-specific skills (subset of transversal skills with direct job relevance) of a representative sample of adults aged 15 to 64 living in urban areas, whether they work or not. The cognitive skills module also incorporates a direct assessment of reading literacy based on the Survey of Adults Skills instruments. Modules also gather information about family, health and language. The STEP Skills Measurement Survey for Ukraine is integrated into the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) 2012.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 1.2.: the data has been checked and cleaned and derived variables were generated.
The STEP survey was limited to the urban area of Ukraine.
Unit of analysis
The units of analysis are the individual respondents and households. A household roster is undertaken at the start of the survey and the individual respondent is randomly selected among all household members aged 15 to 64 included. The random selection process was designed by the STEP team and compliance with the procedure is carefully monitored during fieldwork.
The target population for the Ukraine STEP survey comprises all non-institutionalized persons 15 to 64 years of age (inclusive) living in private dwellings in urban areas of the country at the time of data collection.
This includes all residents except foreign diplomats and non-nationals working for international organizations.
The sample excluded individuals permanently institutionalized in medical facilities, military quarters, and prisons; these exclusions totalled about 725,000 persons or about 2% of the population.
Also excluded from STEP was a 30-km zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, an area with a high level of radiation contamination where public access is restricted and all population was evacuated.
Producers and sponsors
STEP Co-Task Team Leader, Education Global Practice
Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta
STEP Co-Task Team Leader, Social Protection and Labor Global Practice
World Bank Consultant Project Coordinator
Technical assistance in project management, data collection, data processing and data analysis
World Bank Consultant Senior Labor Economist
Technical assistance in project management, questionnaire design, and data analysis
World Bank Consultant Survey Consultant
Technical assistance in questionnaire design, sampling methodology, and data collection
Sebastian Monroy Taborda
World Bank Consultant Research Analyst
Technical assistance in data processing and data analysis
Multi-Donor Trust Fund Labor Markets, Job Creation and Economic Growth
Bank Netherlands Partnership Program
Educational Testing Services
Designed the Reading Literacy Assessment Module and conducted the preliminary analysis of the reading literacy data, including generating plausible values for the Extended Assessment
The Ukraine used a stratified sample design comprised of three components:
1) ULMS Panel Sample;
2) New ULMS-2012 subsample;
3) Step Urban Subsample.
In the ULMS Panel Sample and the Step Urban Subsample, the urban sample was selected within 26 strata consisting of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Kiev, and 24 Oblasts, i.e., geographic administrative units. In the New ULMS-2012 subsample, there was no explicit stratification. The Survey Weighting Summary (see related materials) provides more information on the sampling procedure.
Deviations from sample design
Some of the sampled households were ineligible for STEP for reasons such as vacant, not habitable, no eligible household member, etc.
An overall response rate of 60.4% was achieved in the Ukraine STEP Survey.
The weights for extrapolation of the survey results on the population have been calculated and added to data file as additional variable. Details on weighting are available in the ' STEP Survey Weighting Procedures Summary ' provided under Related Materials.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
26 regional supervisors from KIIS nationwide network were engaged for the implementation of the STEP study in Ukraine. They were supervised by fieldwork managers at the central office, who reported to data collection manager.
The regional supervisors were responsible for:
- hiring interviewers,
- distributing sampling tasks among interviewers;
- control of sample implementation;
- assisting interviewers in working with non-cooperative respondents and other problem cases;
- supervising interviewers work (both observation and control)
- checking questionnaires for completeness and accuracy;
- delivering complete questionnaires to the KIIS' central office.
The merged ULMS-STEP survey instrument consists of three questionnaires :
(i) the merged household questionnaire\roster, including the first block of STEP;
(ii) the standard individual questionnaire, including the fifth block of STEP and some parts of the second, third and fourth blocks of STEP;
(iii) and the extended individual questionnaire, with an additional module on employment skills and a Reading Literacy Assessment developed by Educational Testing Services (ETS).
All countries adapted and translated both instruments from English, following the STEP Technical Standards: 2 independent translators adapted and translated the Background Questionnaire and Reading Literacy Assessment, while reconciliation was carried out by a third translator.
In the Ukraine STEP survey, household and individual questionnaires were prepared in both Ukranian and Russian. However, the literacy assessment was done in Ukrainian only (due to budget constraints).
- The survey instruments were both piloted as part of the survey pretest.
- The adapted Background Questionnaires are provided in English as external resources. The Reading Literacy Assessment is protected by copyright and will not be published.
Country-specific questions on the Household Questionnaire result from a merge of STEP Ukraine survey with ULMS-2012 panel study.
Kiev International Institute of Sociology
STEP Data Management Process
1. Raw data is sent by the survey firm
2. The WB STEP team runs data checks on the Background Questionnaire data.
- ETS runs data checks on the Reading Literacy Assessment data.
- Comments and questions are sent back to the survey firm.
3. The survey firm reviews comments and questions. When a data entry error is identified, the survey firm corrects the data.
4. The WB STEP team and ETS check the data files are clean. This might require additional iterations with the survey firm.
5. Once the data has been checked and cleaned, the WB STEP team computes the weights. Weights are computed by the STEP team to ensure consistency across sampling methodologies.
6. ETS scales the Reading Literacy Assessment data.
7. The WB STEP team merges the Background Questionnaire data with the Reading Literacy Assessment data and computes derived variables.
Detailed information data processing in STEP surveys is provided in the 'Guidelines for STEP Data Entry Programs' document provided as an external resource. The template do-file used by the STEP team to check the raw background questionnaire data is provided as an external resource.
Data entry processes, including team composition, are described in each country NSDPR. In most countries, data entry took place at the survey firm's headquarters. Note that in the case of Colombia, as interviews were conducted using handheld devices, data entry per se was only carried out for the Reading Literacy Assessment data.
1. Background Questionnaire Data
For the Background Questionnaire data, survey firms could use the WB STEP Data Entry Program (DEP) or design their own. In the latter case, the WB STEP team checked their DEP to ensure it complied with STEP Technical Standards.The STEP DEP was developed in Excel and mirrored the Background Questionnaire. Vietnam used the STEP DEP.
(i) Countries which used the STEP DEP
- Yunnan Province of China
(ii) Countries which developed their own DEP in CSPro
- Lao PDR
- Sri Lanka
Standards for Data Entry are detailed in the 'Guidelines for STEP Data Entry Programs' and summarized in the NSDPR. Double data entry process was required. All range checks and skips were controlled by the program. Consistency checks were also included in the data entry program.
2. Reading Literacy Assessment Data
All survey firms were required to score the Reading Literacy Assessment booklets and to enter the data using the Data Entry Program developed by ETS. Double data entry process was required. Consistency checks were also included in the data entry program.
A weighting documentation was prepared for each participating country and provides some information on sampling errors.
All country weighting documentations are provided as an external resource.
Public use files, accessible to all
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Bank. Ukraine STEP Skills Measurement Household Survey 2013 (Wave 1). Ref. UKR_2013_STEP-HH_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.