This study is a firm-level survey of formal businesses in Togo conducted between May and July 2015. The survey data was collected in the context of the preparation of the Togo Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) in order to help identify the biggest constraints and opportunities for private sector growth and development.
The survey is representative of all firms paying taxes in the three largest urban areas of the country. It includes information on business functions and characteristics as well as the firm's interactions with the government. The survey collects both subjective information on the perception of the investment climate and recent investment climate reforms and objective information that can be used to evaluate the investment climate.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01, edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
The variable labels and value labels are in French.
In the interest of protecting the identity of the respondents, some questions have been omitted or recoded in the published dataset. In addition, financial variables have been rounded to the nearest 5,000 FCFA (approximately $10 USD).
The scope of the study includes:
- characteristics of the business;
- perception of the investment climate;
- government regulations;
- access to land;
- judicial system;
- access to finance;
- sales, inputs and capital;
- expectations for the future of the business.
The survey covers firms in the three largest cities in Togo: Lome, Kara and Sokode.
The survey is representative of firms that pay taxes in the three largest cities in Togo.
Producers and sponsors
Hillary C. Johnson
Cabinet Ruby Solutions
Contracts and logistics management
The sampling was done using a database received from the national fiscal authority of firms that had recently paid taxes. The research team used stratified random sampling using location of the firm and sector of activity to define strata. To enable disaggregated analysis, firms in some sectors such as manufacturing and in cities outside of the capital were oversampled.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Given the small number of firms in some strata, the target of the number of firms to interview was not attained for some strata although the team made several attempts to contact all of the firms in the strata's sampling frame. As such, the total number of firms interviewed is lower than the number of firms that had been targeted for the survey.
The total response rate was 39% of contacted businesses. However, the main reason for non-response (65% of cases) was the inability to contact the firm due to outdated or incorrect contact information in the database. The details of the efforts to find these businesses are explained in the survey report.
Given the weighted stratified sampling design, it is necessary to use weights in the analysis. The weighted analysis is representative of tax-paying firms in the largest urban areas in Togo. While there is a general weight variable that takes into account firm response to the survey (named "weight" in the dataset), researchers strongly recommend using weights specific to each variable or set of variables used in the analysis due to the relatively small sample, incomplete questionnaires, and item non-response. This can easily be done using the genweight.do program available in external resources. The syntax of this program is genweight varlist, gen(newvar). The program creates a new weight variable that is specific to the variable or variables that are included in varlist.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The face-to-face interviews took place at the business. The general director of the business was the target respondent; however, s/he could delegate another person of authority in the business to respond to part or all of the questionnaire. The position of the person who responded to each section is noted in the dataset.
The data was collected using paper questionnaires and entered in CSPro using double entry.
Hillary C. Johnson
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
Public use files
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Hillary C. Johnson, World Bank, Theresa Osborne, World Bank. Togo Formal Firm Survey (TFFS) 2015. Ref. TGO_2015_TFFS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
v01 (April 2016)