National Survey on Household Living Conditions and Agriculture 2014
Wave 2 Panel Data
Deuxième Enquête National sur les Conditions de Vie des Ménages et Agriculture 2014
Niger is part of the Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) program. This program has developed a household level survey with a view to enhancing our knowledge of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, its role in poverty reduction and the techniques for promoting efficiency and innovation in this sector. To achieve this objective, an innovative model for agricultural data collection in this region will need to be developed and implemented. To this end, activities conducted in the future will be supported by four main pillars - a multisectoral framework, institutional integration, analytical capacity building, and active dissemination.
- First, agricultural statistical data collection must be part of an expanded and multisectoral framework that goes beyond the rural area. This will facilitate generation of the data needed to formulate effective agricultural policies throughout Niger and in the broader framework of the rural economy.
- Second, agricultural statistical data collection must be supported by a well-adapted institutional framework suited to fostering collaboration and the integration of data sources. By supporting a multi-pronged approach to data collection, this project seeks to foster intersectoral collaboration and overcome a number of the current institutional constraints.
- Third, national capacity building needs to be strengthened in order to enhance the reliability of the data produced and strengthen the link between the producers and users of data. This entails having the capacity to analyze data and to produce appropriate public data sets in a timely manner. The lack of analytical expertise in developing countries perpetuates weak demand for statistical data.
- Consequently, the foregoing has a negative impact on the quality and availability of policy-related analyses. Scant dissemination of statistics and available results has compounded this problem.
In all countries where the LSMS-ISA project will be executed, the process envisioned for data collection will be a national household survey, based on models of LSMS surveys to be conducted every three years for a panel of households. The sampling method to be adopted should ensure the quality of the data, taking into account the depth/complexity of the questionnaire and panel size, while ensuring that samples are representative.
The main objectives of the ECVM/A are to:
- Gauge the progress made with achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs);
- Facilitate the updating of the social indicators used in formulating the policies aimed at improving the living conditions of the population;
- Provide data related to several areas that are important to Niger without conducting specific surveys on individual topics ;
- Provide data on several important areas for Niger that are not necessarily collected in other more specific surveys.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The ECVM/A 2014 is a panel survey with the ECVM/A 2011. The ECVM/A 2011 was designed to have national coverage, including both urban and rural areas in all the regions of the country. The domains are defined as the entire country, the city of Niamey; and other urban areas, rural areas, and in the rural areas, agricultural zones, agro-pastoral zones and pastoral zones.
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
Survey and Census Division
National Institute of Statistics
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
The World Bank
Financial and Technical Assistance
ECVMA Technical Committee
The ECVM/A 2011 was been designed to have national coverage, including both urban and rural areas in all the regions of the country. The domains are defined as the entire country, the city of Niamey; and other urban areas, rural areas, and in the rural areas, agricultural zones, agro-pastoral zones and pastoral zones. Taking this into account, 26 explicit sampling strata were selected: Niamey, and urban, agriculture, agro-pastoral and pastoral zones of the seven regions other than Niamey.
The target population was drawn from households in all 8 regions of the country with the exception of certain strata found in Arlit (Agadez Region) because of difficulties in going there, the very low population density, and collective housing. The portion of the population excluded from the sample represents less than 0.4% of the total population of Niger. Of a total of 36,000 people not included in the sample design, about 29,000 live in Arlit and 7,000 in collective housing.
The sample was chosen through a random two stage process:
- In the first stage a certain number of Enumeration Areas (known as Zones de Dénombrement or ZDs) was selected with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) using the 2001 General Census of Population and Housing as the base for the sample, and the number of households as a measure of size.
- In the second stage, 12 or 18 households were selected with equal probability in each urban or rural ZD respectively. The base for the sample was an exhaustive listing of households that would be done before the start of the survey.
The total estimated size of the 2011 sample was 4,074 households. The fact that this was the first survey with panel households to be revisited in the future was taken into account in the design, making it possible to lose households between the two surveys with minimal adverse effects on the analyses.
The ECVM/A 2014 is a panel survey with the ECVM/A 2011. All households are identified by three variables - GRAPPE, MENAGE and EXTENSION. GRAPPE is the cluster in which the household is located and MENAGE is the household number within that cluster. The GRAPPE and MENAGE identifiers of the households in 2014 are identical with the grappe and menage identifiers in 2011.
In the ECVM/A 2014, all households that had been interviewed in 2011 were tracked. Households that did not move were interviewed in their existing location. Households that had moved to other locations in Niger were followed and interviewed in their new locations if they could be found in the new location. Households that moved outside of Niger were not followed. Households are identified by the GRAPPE and MENAGE identifiers from 2011 even if they moved to a new location.
Individuals who moved from households, for example women who married and moved to their husband’s household or men who moved out to form their own household, were also tracked. In the new location, the individual and all members in the new household were supposed to be interviewed. However in the final data set it is difficult to determine among the households of tracked individuals which one was in the original household and which are the new participants in the survey. While the GRAPPE and MENAGE are identical between the 2011 household and the movers from the 2014 survey, the individual identifiers within the household cannot be matched for these households.
Households that did not move are identified as code “0” in the variable EXTENSION. Households that moved as an entire household are identified as code “1” in variable EXTENSION. Households with an individual who moved from an original household and resided in a new household in 2014 are identified as code “2” in variable EXTENSION.
Within households, individuals should have the same identification numbers as they had in 2011. The variable MS01Q00 in the 2014 data contains the individual identification number within the household. In 2011, the variable is ms01q00. The identification numbers for members who left the household between 2011 and 2014 should not be found in the 2014 data. Their identification numbers should not have been reassigned to any other members. New members who joined the household after the 2011 survey will have identification numbers starting after the highest identification number found in the 2011 data. It is always possible that there were mistakes made in the identification of individuals in the households and the data may not be perfectly matched.
The households that moved maintain the GRAPPE (cluster) and MENAGE (household within the cluster) identification information from 2011 so that they can be matched back to information from the 2011 survey. They may have moved to a different region in the country, but are identified with their original location.
In order to produce nationally representative statistics with the data, weights or expansion factors need to be applied. The sample weight (hhweight) is found in the constructed data sets (see Annex 2 of the Basic Information Document available under the Related Materials tab).
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRES - FIRST VISIT
The ECVM/A involves two visits, which means that each household is visited twice. The first visit takes place during the planting season. The second visit takes place during the harvest season. The household and agriculture/livestock, as well as the community/price questionnaire are administered during the first visit. During the second visit, the household and agriculture/livestock questionnaires are administered in full, but the community questionnaire only collects price information.
The household questionnaire comprises 18 sections, not including the cover page which covers information of a general nature (identity, name of household head) and Section 0 which covers detailed information on household identification and the results of the survey. In the first visit, 16 of the sections were administered.
· Section 1 focuses on the socio-demographic characteristics of household members (gender, age, relations with household head, survival of relations);
· Sections 2 and 3 focus respectively on the education and health of household members;
· Section 4 focuses on the characteristics of the labor market and seeks to determine whether the subject is inactive (retirees, for example), unemployed or employed; and in the case of those in employment, to identify the characteristics of their employment (socio-professional category, seniority, working hours, income etc.);
· Section 5 focuses on non-agricultural enterprises owned either by a household member, or by the household. The enterprises concerned are all enterprises in which a household member is the boss, a partner, or self-employed;
· Sections 6 and 7 focus respectively to the characteristics of the household dwelling (status of occupancy, nature of walls, roof, flooring, number of rooms etc.) and its equipment in terms of durable goods and production tools;
· Section 8 focuses on the income of household members which is not derived from employment (pensions, scholarships, income from rent etc.);
· Section 9 focuses on fund transfers made by the household to other households and remittances received from other households, and social assistance received by the household members;
· Section 10 focuses on negative shocks sustained by the household during the 12 months prior to the interview and the coping strategies adopted in this regard;
· Section 11 focuses on non-food household expenditure items (exclusive of education, health and accommodation which are addressed under the appropriate sections above);
· Section 12 focuses on food consumption (expenditure, auto-consumption, gifts and donations);
· Section 13 focuses on addresses other information on food consumption during the 7 days preceding the survey, with particular reference to food consumption according to food group;
· Section 14 focuses on food security;
· Section 15 looks at the aspirations of individuals from 15 to 25 years of age and the constraints or facilitators to those aspirations; and
· Section 16 looks at psychology and attitudes of individual 15 to 25 years of age.
SECOND VISIT QUESTIONNAIRE
The second visit household questionnaire is a reduced version of the version used in the first round. It includes information to determine if members who were in the household in the first visit are still in the household and if there are any new members. When there are new members, the questionnaire is used to collect limited basic socio-demographic information.
In addition, information for all households is collected on non-food expenditures of the household (Section 11), food consumption (Section 12), other information on food consumption for the past 7 days, notably the foods consumed by type of food (Section 13), and food security (Section 14).
Two new sections were added to the second visit household questionnaire.
· Section 17 is about the consumption of livestock owned by the household for the Tabaski festival; and
· Section 18 is about children between the ages of 5 and 15 who live outside of the household.
AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK QUESTIONNAIRE - FIRST VISIT
Like the household questionnaire, the agriculture/livestock questionnaire is divided into sections and sub-sections. In the first visit, which is administered in the post-planting season, three sections were administered:
· Section 1 collects information on the household’s access to land;
· Section 2 collects information about inputs, labor, types of crops, and costs for rainy season agriculture; and
· Section 3 collects information on agricultural equipment owned/used by the household.
AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK QUESTIONNAIRE - SECOND VISIT
The agriculture and livestock questionnaire, second visit, collects information on the harvest and on livestock production in the household. The sections include:
· Section 1 collect’s information on the household’s access to land;
· Section 2 collects information about inputs, labor, types of crops, costs, and amount of harvest for rainy season agriculture;
· Section 4 collects information on livestock including type of livestock, reproduction, shelter, feeding, water, health, labor, meat production, milk production, egg production, use of animals for transportation and work, production and use of manure, and transhumance; and
· Section 5 collects information on tree culture and perennials, agricultural extension, and climate change.
The community questionnaire has 7 sections. In addition, the cover pages collects general information (identification information, etc.) and section 0 provides the names of the respondents.
· Section 1 collects information relative to the existence and accessibility of social services;
· Section 2 collects information on the economy and infrastructure in the village/neighborhood.
· Section 3 is dedicated to health;
· Section 4 collects the characteristics of agriculture in the village/neighborhood;
· Section 5 looks at livestock and negative shocks which the community has been victim during the last 5 years;
· Section 6 reports community needs for infrastructure; and
· Section 7 collects local prices.
In the second visit, the community questionnaire was used only to collect local prices.
The data entry was done in the field simultaneously with the data collection. Each data collection team included a data entry operator who key entered the data soon after it was collected. The data entry program was designed in CSPro, a data entry package developed by the US Census Bureau. This program allows three types of data checks: (1) range checks; (2) intra-record checks to verify inconsistencies pertinent to the particular module of the questionnaire; and (3) inter-record checks to determine inconsistencies between the different modules of the questionnaire.
Other forms of data appraisal
The data as distributed represent the best effort to provide complete information. The data were collected and cleaned prior to the construction of the consumption aggregate. Using the same guidelines as were used in 2011, the households that are provided in the data set should have consumption data for both visits. This may not be the case. During the cleaning process, it was found that households had been misidentified which allowed more households to be included in the final consumption aggregate file (see below). The raw data that contains household/item level data that was used to calculate the consumption aggregate has been included in the distribution file.There are 3,614 households and 26,579 individuals in the data.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
- Public use files, accessible to all
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Niger National Institute of Statistics. National Survey on Household Living Conditions and Agriculture (ECVMA) 2014. Ref. NER_2014_ECVMA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
The World Bank Microdata Library
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Version 02 (July 2018). This version is identical to version 01, except for the Data file “Agriculture Questionnaire - Second Visit, Section 2, Part D” which was added.