The Rwandan government has created a conducive environment for growth in multiple sectors, set ambitious targets to become a middle-income country by 2020, and sees the development of the financial sector as a key to meeting these targets.
In 2014-2015, a research company InterMedia conducted Financial Inclusion Insights Survey to explore the uptake and usage of financial services generally and mobile financial services in Rwanda. This study sought to understand the role digital financial services (DFS) play in money transfers, payments and savings among various consumer segments.
The study objectives were:
- to track citizens' access to financial services generally and the uptake and use of mobile financial services (MFS) specifically
- to evaluate service performance amongst MFS agents and customers
- to identify drivers and barriers to further adoption of MFS
- to make forward projections and provide insight that will generate market growth.
The survey was conducted among nationally representative sample of Rwandan adults age 15 and older. The sample size was 2,003. The survey was administered using face-to-face interviews from December 2014 to February 2015. The results provided baseline measurements. Subsequent annual surveys can measure trends and track market developments in digital financial services.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v01 - edited dataset with direct identifying variables removed
Unit of analysis
Adults age 15 and older residing in households
Producers and sponsors
CGAP (the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor)
Research Solutions Africa
The 2012 Census file obtained from the Rwanda National Institute of Statistics (NISR) was used as the sampling frame. This file includes all the provinces (5), districts (30) and sectors (416) in Rwanda with their respective population. It also contains the proportion of rural and urban population. After selecting the sectors for the survey, the NISR provided the list of cells and villages for selected sectors from which villages were selected.
The total sample size was 2,000 interviews distributed across 200 villages with 10 interviews per village. A simple random probability sampling technique was used to distribute the Primary Sampling Units across the 416 sectors, taking into account the rural urban split of 83/17 in Rwanda.
Within the selected sectors one village was randomly selected. In total 33 urban and 167 rural villages were selected. Random walk and Kish grid methods were respectively used to select households and respondents.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
InterMedia had a team of four quality checkers who worked with RSA supervisors and managers to administer Quality Assurance and Quality Control. Sampling and interview observation were the main QA activities. Physical or telephonic back checks, completion and logic checks were the main QC activities. All these activities were documented in respective supervisor sheets. At least 10% of our interviews were observed. A similar number was back-checked. All the interviews were checked for completion and logic first by the interviewers then by the supervisors. The data collection firm RSA continuously verified GPS points recorded in questionnaires to ensure the right Enumeration Areas were being visited.
The questionnaire was read word for word, almost always in Kinyarwanda.
In addition to the questionnaire, the following forms were filled daily:
- Interviewer log sheet,
- Supervisor observation forms, issue log, field log and back-check sheets.
Three consent forms were used in the study:
- Parent/guardian consent form for all respondents who were between 15-17 years of age,
- Informed consent form to participate in a separate follow-up study for respondents who had registered mobile money accounts,
- Photography consent form for all respondents.
Research Solutions Africa
Data was manually captured using QPSMR (Questionnaire Processing Software Market Research) in double entry (100% verification). A total of 34 data entry clerks participated throughout project in two shifts (night and day shifts). 25% of the questionnaires were captured concurrently with field work and the rest upon field work completion.
The verified data was then exported to SPSS for consistency checks. Variable checks were created using a codebook developed by InterMedia for each column to check the consistency in base and by extension also used to pick out missing data points.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
InterMedia. Rwanda Financial Inclusion Insights Survey (FII) 2014, Ref. RWA_2014_FII_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.