The Financial Inclusion Insights (FII) program produces original data and practical knowledge on trends in mobile money and other digital financial services.
It was conceived in 2013 in partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and is managed by InterMedia.
The FII team conducts surveys and qualitative research in Rwanda, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia to:
- track access to and demand for financial services generally, and the uptake and use of digital financial services (DFS) specifically;
- measure adoption and use of DFS among key target groups (females, BOP, rural, unbanked, etc.);
- identify drivers and barriers to further adoption of DFS;
- evaluate the agent experience and the performance of mobile money agents; and
- produce actionable, forward-looking insights to support product and service development and delivery, based on rigorous FII data.
Rwanda and Ghana FII surveys were sponsored by CGAP (the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor). Housed at the World Bank, CGAP is a global partnership of 34 leading organizations that seek to advance financial inclusion.
The Rwandan government has created a conducive environment for growth in multiple sectors, set ambitious targets to become a middle-income country by 2020, and sees the development of the financial sector as a key to meeting these targets.
In 2014-2015, a research company InterMedia conducted Financial Inclusion Insights Survey to explore the uptake and usage of financial services generally and mobile financial services in Rwanda. This study sought to understand the role digital financial services (DFS) play in money transfers, payments and savings among various consumer segments.
The study objectives were:
- to track citizens' access to financial services generally and the uptake and use of mobile financial services (MFS) specifically
- to evaluate service performance amongst MFS agents and customers
- to identify drivers and barriers to further adoption of MFS
- to make forward projections and provide insight that will generate market growth.
The survey was conducted among nationally representative sample of Rwandan adults age 15 and older. The sample size was 2,003. The survey was administered using face-to-face interviews from December 2014 to February 2015. The results provided baseline measurements. Subsequent annual surveys can measure trends and track market developments in digital financial services.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01 - edited dataset with direct identifying variables removed
The scope of the study includes:
- Basic demographics
- Poverty measurement (Grameen Progress Out of Poverty Index and Ubudehe)
- Access/use of mobile devices and mobile money
- Access/use of formal financial services (e.g., bank accounts)
- Access/use of semi-formal and informal financial services (e.g., SACCO, cooperatives, self-help groups)
- Financial literacy and preparedness
- Technical literacy
Adults age 15 and older residing in households
Producers and sponsors
CGAP (the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor)
Research Solutions Africa
The 2012 Census file obtained from the Rwanda National Institute of Statistics (NISR) was used as the sampling frame. This file includes all the provinces (5), districts (30) and sectors (416) in Rwanda with their respective population. It also contains the proportion of rural and urban population. After selecting the sectors for the survey, the NISR provided the list of cells and villages for selected sectors from which villages were selected.
The total sample size was 2,000 interviews distributed across 200 villages with 10 interviews per village. A simple random probability sampling technique was used to distribute the Primary Sampling Units across the 416 sectors, taking into account the rural urban split of 83/17 in Rwanda.
Within the selected sectors one village was randomly selected. In total 33 urban and 167 rural villages were selected. Random walk and Kish grid methods were respectively used to select households and respondents.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
InterMedia had a team of four quality checkers who worked with RSA supervisors and managers to administer Quality Assurance and Quality Control. Sampling and interview observation were the main QA activities. Physical or telephonic back checks, completion and logic checks were the main QC activities. All these activities were documented in respective supervisor sheets. At least 10% of our interviews were observed. A similar number was back-checked. All the interviews were checked for completion and logic first by the interviewers then by the supervisors. The data collection firm RSA continuously verified GPS points recorded in questionnaires to ensure the right Enumeration Areas were being visited.
Data Collection Notes
Thirty eight field staff were recruited for the training. All the supervisors and enumerators had a minimum college level education, good knowledge of the training and survey languages (Kinyarwanda and English) and some experience as field researchers. The best 30 were selected to work as interviewers and supervisors.
The pilot took place on November 28, 2014. The team was divided into 7 teams under 7 supervisors and 2 field managers. Seven sectors in three districts of Kigali, which were not to be visited during actual data collection, were selected for the pilot.
Fieldwork was conducted from December 10, 2014 to January 15, 2015. However, one enumeration area which was missed during this period, was surveyed on February 18, 2015.
Apart from full-time Research Solutions Africa (RSA) staff, the team consisted of 7 teams of 3 interviewers each, 7 supervisors (or team leaders) and 2 field managers. The interviewers had a target of 3-4 interviews per day.
During nearly all interviews, GPS readings were captured using GPS readers and recorded on the questionnaire. In about 10 cases households refused to grant permission RSA to capture GPS coordinates of the location.
Research Solutions Africa
The questionnaire was read word for word, almost always in Kinyarwanda.
In addition to the questionnaire, the following forms were filled daily:
- Interviewer log sheet,
- Supervisor observation forms, issue log, field log and back-check sheets.
Three consent forms were used in the study:
- Parent/guardian consent form for all respondents who were between 15-17 years of age,
- Informed consent form to participate in a separate follow-up study for respondents who had registered mobile money accounts,
- Photography consent form for all respondents.
Data was manually captured using QPSMR (Questionnaire Processing Software Market Research) in double entry (100% verification). A total of 34 data entry clerks participated throughout project in two shifts (night and day shifts). 25% of the questionnaires were captured concurrently with field work and the rest upon field work completion.
The verified data was then exported to SPSS for consistency checks. Variable checks were created using a codebook developed by InterMedia for each column to check the consistency in base and by extension also used to pick out missing data points.
Claudia Vonderohe McKay
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
InterMedia. Rwanda Financial Inclusion Insights Survey (FII) 2014, Ref. RWA_2014_FII_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.