The Financial Inclusion Insights (FII) program produces original data and practical knowledge on trends in mobile money and other digital financial services.
It was conceived in 2013 in partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and is managed by InterMedia.
The FII team conducts surveys and qualitative research in Rwanda, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia to:
track access to and demand for financial services generally, and the uptake and use of digital financial services (DFS) specifically;
measure adoption and use of DFS among key target groups (females, BOP, rural, unbanked, etc.);
identify drivers and barriers to further adoption of DFS;
evaluate the agent experience and the performance of mobile money agents; and
produce actionable, forward-looking insights to support product and service development and delivery, based on rigorous FII data.
Rwanda and Ghana FII surveys were sponsored by CGAP (the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor). Housed at the World Bank, CGAP is a global partnership of 34 leading organizations that seek to advance financial inclusion.
In 2014-2015, a research company InterMedia conducted Financial Inclusion Insights Survey in Ghana to respond to the needs identified by multiple stakeholders for timely demand side data and practical insights into digital financial services (DFS), including mobile money, and the potential for their expanded use among the poor.
The specific objectives of the study were:
- to track access to and demand for financial services generally and the uptake and use of DFS specifically;
- to measure adoption and use of DFS among key target groups (females, BOP, rural, unbanked, etc.);
- to identify drivers and barriers to further adoption of DFS;
- to evaluate the agent experiences and the performance of mobile money agents;
- to produce actionable, forward looking insights to support product and service development and delivery based on rigorous data.
A nationally representative sample of 3,000 adults age 15 and older was randomly selected to participate in the study. The study was carried out in all 10 regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Brong-Ahafo, Ashanti, Central, Eastern, Western, Volta and Greater Accra). Face-to-face interviews were conducted from December 1, 2014 to January 3, 2015. The results provided baseline measurements. Subsequent annual surveys can measure trends and track market developments in digital financial services.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01 - edited dataset with direct identifying variables removed
The scope of the study includes:
Poverty measurement (Grameen Progress out of Poverty Index),
Access/use of mobile devices,
Access/use of mobile money,
Access/use of formal financial services (e.g., bank accounts),
Access/use of semi-formal and informal financial services (e.g., SACCO, MFI, SUSU, cooperatives, self-help groups),
Financial literacy and preparedness,
All 10 regions in Ghana (Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Brong-Ahafo, Ashanti, Central, Eastern, Western, Volta and Greater Accra).
Adults age 15 and older residing in households
Producers and sponsors
CGAP (the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor)
The list of Enumeration Areas (EAs) created for the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census was used as the sampling frame for the study.
The sample was selected using a stratified multistage design. Stratification was based on the urban/rural classification. The target sample of 3,000 respondents was first allocated to the 10 regions of the country proportionally to their estimated population of 15 years old and older. Within each region, the resulting sample allocation was proportionally distributed to urban and rural areas.
In the first stage, EAs were selected as primary sampling units; each with an equal probability of being selected. Given 10 interviews were to be conducted in each selected EA, a total of 300 EAs were randomly selected.
In the second stage, households were selected using the random walk method. In each of the sampled enumeration areas, prominent landmarks were identified to mark the single starting point for the random route walk. After identifying the starting point, a pen (or a stick) was spun on the ground and interviewers started the random walk in the opposite directions (nearest path/road) indicated by the pen neck and the bottom of the pen. During this process the interviewer adhered to the left hand rule thus selecting houses to the left hand side, sticking to the left when turning at each intersection. From the starting point, the interviewer identified the first household to be interviewed using the left hand rule and the last digit of the serial number of the questionnaire.
In the third and final stage of selection, one eligible respondent in each household was selected using the Kish grid method where all people age 15 and older were listed with their ages from the eldest to the youngest.
The questionnaire was developed by InterMedia and translated by InterMedia’s field partners into the required languages: Ga, Twi, Ewe and Dagbanli. The translated questionnaires were approved by InterMedia before commencement of fieldwork.
In addition to the questionnaire, the following research instruments were also used:
Interviewer and Supervisor training manuals
Show cards capturing literacy information
Supervisor observation form, issue log, filed log, and back check sheet
GPS record forms
Start point selection forms.
There were 3 consent forms that were administered for this study:
Parent/guardian consent form for all respondents who were between 15-17 years of age
Photography consent form administered to all respondents
Informed consent form to participate in a separate follow-up study.
Dates of Data Collection
InterMedia's field partner recruited 95 interviewers, 19 supervisors and 8 quality control representatives from a pool of qualified candidates. The field staff were chosen based on their experience in various studies conducted across the country and their languages. Each team comprised of five interviewers and one supervisor.
In addition, five independent field quality control staff were directly hired by InterMedia to closely supervise and monitor fieldwork. InterMedia received weekly partial data from the field which was analyzed for quality control and used to provide timely feedback to field staff.
Data Collection Notes
A central training of interviewers was conducted for five days in November 2014 to ensure uniformity in understanding the study objectives, methodology and questionnaire administration.
A pilot study was carried out in the following areas: Odorkor, Kaneshie and Teshie on November 21, 2014 during which the teams tried out the questionnaire and the methodology of the study in close supervision by the field coordinator, a quality control executive and the team of supervisors. After that pilot, a review of the tool was done and some of the issues that arouse were addressed so as to ensure that everybody masters it very well. A total of 100 interviews were conducted.
Fieldwork was conducted during December 1, 2014 - January 2, 2015. Total number of interviews conducted was 3,000. Each interviewer had a target of 3 interviews per day. The questionnaire was read word for word in respective local languages or English. The coordinate readings were captured using GPS machines at the end of every interview and recorded on the questionnaire.
The household substitution was done if:
selected respondent terminates the interview before it is completed,
all call-backs have failed (3 attempts),
no one in the household spoke English or required local language,
selected respondent identified but not at home of calling,
house is lived in but no one home at the time of calling (no response),
selected respondent refuses to be interviewed.
For unsuccessful interviews, the household to the immediate right of the initial household is selected. If that too is unsuccessful, the household to the immediate left of the initial household is selected, followed by second right, second left, third right and so on. Attempts could be made at up to 9 households (alternating between houses on the right and on the left as described above). However, after getting a successful interview, the interviewer resumed the normal skip from the furthest household reached in the process of substitution.
Data Capturing was done via a Dimensions link developed by the Ipsos Kenya DP Hub. InterMedia provided Ipsos Ghana with a codebook along which the data was structured. Data capturing was done in the Ipsos Ghana office and begun on December 18, 2014. An interim data of the first 100 cases was shared with the InterMedia team on January 8, 2015. Data capturing ended on February 2, 2015.
Ipsos Ghana employed a data plotter whose sole responsibility was to plot the GPS coordinates generated from field after each day's work to ensure that they plotted the correct coordinates. Where errors were found, the respective supervisor was alerted and they went back to the location to record the coordinates again.
Data Processing was fully handled by the Ipsos Kenya DP team. Data processing ended on March 20, 2015.
Claudia Vonderohe McKay
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
the Identification of the Primary Investigator
the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
the survey reference number
the source and date of download
InterMedia. Ghana Financial Inclusion Insights Survey (FII) 2014, Ref. GHA_2014_FII_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.