Columns 28 - 32: Information on economic activity
The information collected on economic activity status in these columns during the last
12 months include:
a. whether the person was engaged in productive work during the reference period
b. reason for not being engaged in productive work during the reference period (for those who were not so engaged)
d. major types of occupation
d. major product or service of the establishment or industry
e. employment status in the main activity
Column 28: Was (name) engaged in productive work during most of the last 12 months? 1 = Yes, 2 = No
Every member of the household aged ten years and above is asked whether they were engaged in productive activities during most of the 12 months prior to the date of enumeration. The enumerator should know the definition of productive work as given below.
General definition of productive work
For the purpose of the census, productive activity is defined as work which involves the production of goods and/or services for sale or exchange and the production of certain products for own consumption. According to the above general definition, economic/productive activity covers the production of goods and services intended for sale on the market aimed at generating incomes. This includes the production of items or services for market (cash) or in exchange for other items. In other words, productive activities include paid employment in household, private, governmental, or agricultural activities, engagement in the production of goods for sale, working in household enterprises and agricultural sectors without payment and apprentices as well. Remuneration might be daily, weekly, monthly or according to the amount of work done.
The following list of production of goods and services are included as productive activities.
A. Production of items for sale. For example, industrial products, production of pottery, etc., and persons providing services to generate income for example, barbers, selling local drinks like Tella and Katikala and weaving, brokers, etc.
B. Paid employment activities in governmental, other households or organizations. For example, physicians, teachers, employed farmers, shepherds, etc. It also includes unpaid communal work, for example, food for work, planting trees (forestry), communal labour, etc.
C. Producing items for own consumption or for sale or production of durable goods for domestic use, as detailed below.
1. Activities involving primary production for own consumption:
For example, producing agricultural products (crops like cereals/pulses, fruits and vegetables, cotton, etc.); hunting, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying are the components of primary production. Growing or gathering agricultural primary products, animal husbandry/poultry, hunting, fishing and cutting or collecting fire woods, charcoal or for other purpose
from own holdings. Collecting thatching and weaving materials and charcoal making Â– mining salt cutting peat, digging of soil for house or household utensils, digging or collecting sand and stone, etc
2. Processing of Primary Commodities for own Consumption
It covers activities such as milling grain, making butter, cheese and other dairy products, sinning and tanning, making baskets and hats and constructing wooden furniture and fixture.
Note: It should be emphasized that these various activities are considered as economic activity only if they involve the processing of primary products. Thus, pounding "teff" (a primary product) to make "injera" is included; thus-using flour (a processed product) to make "injera" is excluded. It should further be noted that only the processing of primary commodities by the producers of these items, which means that the processing for own consumption of primary commodities by those who do not produce them is excluded. Thus, for example making flour of "teff" from the market is not included but making flour of "teff" produced by oneself is considered.
Processing those above mentioned products to finished or semi-finished products for own consumption. Example: Spinning, making butter or cheese, grinding corns or cereals. Producing furniture, like, tables, chairs, containers, etcÂ… However, processing those finished or semi-finished items to other forms for own consumption can not be considered as a productive activity.
3. Processing of primary commodities (goods and services) for sale also are productive activity
Example, making local drinks (like "Tella") for sale and partially used for own consumption. It can also be considered if the drink is partially used for home.
4. Production of fixed assets for own use (those fixed assets should give at least one year service)
Example, Construction of dwellings, construction of farm buildings, clearing land for cultivation production of agricultural tools, etc.
Non-Productive / economic activities
While the SNA definition of the production of goods and services covers a wide range of activities many other activities still remain outside its scope.
a) Unpaid activities such as domestic tasks are taken as non-productive/ economic activities do not count as economic activity. For example, water fetching for domestic use, collecting firewood/ dung from field or forest (not from own holding) and spinning of cotton for own consumption of primary commodities who do not produce them.
b) Unpaid domestic activities do not count as economic activity. Examples are preparing food for household consumption, nursing of children and current repair and maintenance of dwelling and farm buildings and unpaid community and volunteer services, and voluntary service in international or national centers or local organizations, and prostitution etc...
c) Even though one receive money, but do not earn it: Who are pensions only, who are earning money by renting a house only, i.e. by not involving in any activity, Those who are earning money by begging ,and gamblers, are not considered as economic activity.
d) Others, like engaged in apprentice-to get experience working in offices, garage and in various sectors with out participation of in relation to training /education also considered non- economic activity.
What do we mean by most of the last 12 months?
A person is to be classified as most of the last 12 months active (engaged in productive activity) usually if he/she has been economically active (engaged in productive activity) for more then 6 months or 26 weeks or above during the last 12 months. The above clarification is general definition/ concept. But engagement in productive activity for most of the last 12 months depends on the type and nature of activity they were involved and vary from country to country. The following three examples elaborate how most of the last 12 months are applicable.
a) If a person is engaged in agriculture, he/she is considered as being engaged in economic activity during most of the last 12 months if he/she has worked most of the main agricultural seasons of the reference year in that area/ locality.
Suppose that the main agricultural season for a particular area is 8 months. A person in this particular area is said to be engaged in most of the last 12 months if he/she has worked for 4 months and more. Agricultural season includes the main and the "Belg" Season and the time from preparing the land to harvesting (seeding, ploughing, sawing, weeding, harvesting and collecting).
b. If a person is engaged in other agricultural activity, like livestock, poultry, cattle rearing, etc., for 6 months or more in the last 12 months, then that person is considered as he is engaged for most of the last 12 months.
c. Those who are engaged either non-agricultural sectors like, trade, weaving, or work in government organization/ NGO etcÂ…., if they were worked for more than 6 months and above in the last 12 months.