Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2013 - Harmonized Public Use Data
This survey is part of the Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) project, an initiative led by the World Bank. SDI surveys track the quality of service delivery in primary schools and frontline health facilities across Africa and other regions of the world. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time and aim to enhance the active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. Ultimately, the goal of the program is to support policymakers, citizens, service providers, donors, and other stakeholders in enhancing the quality of service delivery and improve development outcomes.
Since the inception of the initiative in 2010, twenty-six surveys have been completed in twelve countries in Africa, capturing the health and primary education service delivery experience of over 500 million people. The surveys have been extended in Africa (with SDIs in the pipeline or envisioned in Benin, DRC, Cameron, Madagascar, Ethiopia, Cote D’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Malawi, and Mali) and beyond: data collection for the first SDI surveys in Latin America (Guatemala), East Asia/Pacific (Indonesia), Europe and Central Asia (Armenia, Moldova, and Ukraine), Middle East and North Africa (Iraq), and South Asia (Bhutan) are underway or being considered.
With the exception of Module 3 (school finances), the datasets distributed here were harmonized to a common standard to facilitate comparisons across countries and over time. The data was also anonymized to preserve the confidentiality of the data of respondents. The harmonization and anonymization work was conducted by the SDI team at the World Bank.
SDI surveys are documented in the Microdata Library as Service Delivery Indicators Health Surveys and Service Delivery Indicators Education Surveys.
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between and within countries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, and infrastructure such as blackboards and toilets). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and the key resources necessary for students to learn.
Uganda Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented between June 20th and August 7th, 2013 by the Economic Policy Research Centre in close coordination with the World Bank SDI team. Overall, 400 primary schools were visited; 2,197 primary three, four, and five teachers were assessed on English, mathematics, and pedagogy; 3,806 teachers of all grades were followed for absence rate. Also, although learning outcomes were not part of the indicators, 3,966 primary four pupils were assessed on English, mathematics, and non-verbal reasoning. It was crucial that the indicators be correlated with pupil learning outcomes because the SDI was geared towards capturing the drivers of learning outcomes at the school level.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v02, harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution.
Module 3 (School Management/Finances) was added to the collection. It is important to note that module 3’s variables were not harmonized to a common standard. Given different educational (and administrative) structures in each SDI country, questions for module 3 are uniquely designed according to the country’s interests and context. Nonetheless, the dataset was still subject to a thorough anonymization process like the rest of the datasets added to the collection.
Compared to v01, v02 changes include:
1. Data reorganized by the unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil).
2. New round of data cleaning, including renaming and relabeling variables, fixing incorrect category values, fixing incorrect value labels, adding variables from original datasets absent in the previous version, converting variables into proper variable type, deleting analysis/supervision variables, fixing and recategorizing missing observations, reordering variables to reflect instrument structure.
3. Addition of anonymized variables from module 3. Module 3 was not initially included in the previous version as the context-related uniqueness of school financial information collected in each country does not allow for harmonization.
4. New round of data harmonization (with the exception of module 3) and anonymization. For more details on the harmonization and anonymization process, please refer to the Harmonization Protocol, Harmonized Variables Codebooks, and Anonymization Protocol included as part of this collection’s documentation.
The core Education Service Delivery Indicators are:
1) Teacher Effort:
- School absence rate
- Classroom absence rate
- Time spent teaching per day
2) Teacher Knowledge and Ability:
- Minimum knowledge among teachers (mathematics, language, and pedagogy)
3) Availability of Inputs:
- Infrastructure availability
- Equipment availability
- Share of pupils with textbooks
- Observed pupil-teacher ratio
The survey also tests grade 4 pupils on mathematics, linguistics, and non-verbal reasoning. Additionally, direct observations are made to assess firsthand classroom conditions as well as school inputs and infrastructure that teachers and students have readily available.
SDI instruments also include modules on the school's finances and staff/teacher rosters that include their qualifications and demographic information.
All primary schools.
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Economic Policy Research Center
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
After the total sample size and its allocation across regions were decided, the next step was to sample the actual schools that would be included in the final sample and the pupils and teachers to be assessed within each school. This was done using a two-stage sampling method. First, in each stratum, schools were chosen within the selected counties, and then, teachers and pupils were selected in a second stage within each selected school.
The schools were chosen using probability proportional to size (PPS), where size was the number of primary four pupils as provided by the 2012 EMIS database. As for the selection of the cluster, the use of PPS implied that each primary four pupil within a stratum had an equal probability for his/her school to be selected.
Finally, within each school, up to 10 primary four pupils and 10 teachers were selected. Pupils were randomly selected among the primary four pupil body, whereas for teachers there were two different procedures for measuring absence rate and assessing knowledge. For absence rate, 10 teachers were randomly selected in the teachers' roster and the whereabouts of those teachers was ascertained in a return surprise visit. For the assessment, however, all teachers who were currently teaching in primary four or taught primary three the previous school year were included in the sample. Then a random number of teachers in upper grades were included to top up the sample. These procedures implied that pupils across strata, as well as teachers across strata and within school (for assessment), did not all have the same probability of selection. It was, therefore, warranted to compute weights for reporting the survey results.
Detailed information on the sampling procedure is available in the attached report.
To be representative of the population of interest, sample estimates from the 2013 Uganda SDI had to be properly weighted using a sampling weight, or expansion factor. Note that different weights needed to be applied depending on the relevant level for the variable (the school, teacher or pupil). The basic weight for each entity was equal to the inverse of its probability of selection, which was computed by multiplying the probabilities of selection at each sampling stage. All the weights were computed and included in the dataset.
School, teacher, and pupil-level sampling weights are stored in the "UGA_2013_EDU_Weights.dta" file.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Economic Policy Research Centre
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the head teacher to collect information about school finances (this data is unharmonized).
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
Data entry was done using CSPro; quality control was performed in Stata.
Datasets have been cleaned, anonymized, and harmonized using Stata.
For some variables, missing observations were recoded and/or distinctly labeled as:
- Skips: "-999", or ".a"
- Don't Know: "999", "99", or ".b"
- Confidential Information (Anonymized): "Confidential", or ".c "
- Not Available: ".n"
Estimates of Sampling Error
For more information about the sampling process, refer to “Annex A: Sampling Strategy” in the Country Report attached as documentation.
HD Practice Group, The World Bank
Details about the anonymization process can be found in the documentation provided with these datasets.
The harmonized, anonymized datasets are available as public files (for use under a License).
Researchers who feel that they need non-anonymized data should contact email@example.com with a statement of research objectives and a rationale for why they require such data. That will start the Research Use File discussion.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Waly Wane, The World Bank. Uganda Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2013 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. UGA_2013_SDI-E_v01_M_v02_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank Group
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 2 (February 2021). This version differs from the original version as it includes:
1. Data reorganized by unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil, time-on-task).
2. New round of data cleaning.
3. New round of data harmonization and anonymization.
4. Addition of anonymized variables from module 3 on School Management/Finances.
The metadata and documentation included in this version reflect and explain these changes.