Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2013 - Harmonized Public Use Data
This survey is part of the Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) project, an initiative of the World Bank, the African Economic Research Consortium, and the African Development Bank. Started in 2012, SDI tracks performance and quality of service delivery in primary schools and frontline health facilities across Africa. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time, and aim to enhance active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. Ultimately, the goal of the program is to help policymakers, citizens, service providers, donors, and other stakeholders enhance the quality of services and improve development outcomes.
The pilot surveys were conducted in Tanzania and Senegal in 2010. In 2012-2013, surveys were conducted in Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Togo and Uganda; in 2014-2016, in Madagascar, Tanzania and Niger. The surveys are repeated every two years.
SDI initiative is a unique 10-year program and the World Bank is the implementing partner for the first five years.
The data distributed here has been harmonized to a common standard to facilitate comparisons across countries and time. The data also has been anonymized to preserve confidentiality of respondents. The harmonization and anonymization work is done by the World Bank's SDI team.
SDI surveys are documented in the Microdata Library as Service Delivery Indicators Health Surveys and Service Delivery Indicators Education Surveys.
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between nations and across subnational boundaries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, infrastructure). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and key resources, which need to be in place for students to learn.
Nigeria Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented in 2013 by the World Bank and the Research Triangle Institute International. Information was collected from 760 primary schools, 2,400 teachers (for skills assessment), 5,700 teachers (for absence rate) and 6,600 pupils in four states of Nigeria (Anambra, Bauchi, Ekiti, and Niger).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01, harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution
Education Service Delivery Indicators are:
1) Teacher Effort:
- School absence rate
- Classroom absence rate
- Time spent teaching per day
2) Teacher Knowledge and Ability:
- Minimum knowledge in mathematics
- Minimum knowledge in English
- Minimum knowledge in pedagogy
3) Availability of Inputs:
- Minimum infrastructure availability
- Minimum equipment availability
- Share of pupils with textbooks
- Observed pupil-teacher ratio
Four states: Anambra, Bauchi, Ekiti, and Niger.
All primary schools
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Research Triangle Institute International
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
The sampling strategy was designed aiming to produce state representative estimates and estimating a proportion with an absolute error of three percentage points for a variable proportion of 0.5 (i.e., has highest variance) with 95 percent degree of confidence per state (equal number used for state).
The strata were constructed according to ownership, urban/rural, and socioeconomic poverty status. The allocation was made in proportion to size for each sub-stratum within public and private. Within strata, simple random sampling was used. Finally, replacement schools were preselected, with a predetermined replacement order within strata.
A total of 190 schools were sampled from each of the four states (Anambra, Bauchi, Ekiti, and Niger).
The target population is all public primary-level school children. Since parts of the school questionnaire were administered to teachers and pupils at the grade four level, all public schools with at least one grade four class formed the sampling frame. The sample frame was created using the list of public schools from UBEC (Universal Basic Education Commission) and private schools from states.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Weights are provided in "fileweights_anon" dataset.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Research Triangle Institute International
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the head teacher to collect information about school finances (not included in the harmonized data)
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
Data entry was done using CSPro; quality control was performed in Stata.
The World Bank
The harmonized, anonymized datasets are available as public use files.
Researchers who feel that they need non-anonymized data should contact firstname.lastname@example.org with a statement of research objectives and a rationale for why they require such data. That will start the Research Use File discussion.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Obert Pimhidzai, The World Bank. Nigeria Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2013 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. NGA_2013_SDI-E_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.