Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data
This survey is part of the Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) project, an initiative led by the World Bank. SDI surveys track the quality of service delivery in primary schools and frontline health facilities across Africa and other regions of the world. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time and aim to enhance the active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. Ultimately, the goal of the program is to support policymakers, citizens, service providers, donors, and other stakeholders in enhancing the quality of service delivery and improve development outcomes.
Since the inception of the initiative in 2010, twenty-six surveys have been completed in twelve countries in Africa, capturing the health and primary education service delivery experience of over 500 million people. The surveys have been extended in Africa (with SDIs in the pipeline or envisioned in Benin, DRC, Cameron, Madagascar, Ethiopia, Cote D’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Malawi, and Mali) and beyond: data collection for the first SDI surveys in Latin America (Guatemala), East Asia/Pacific (Indonesia), Europe and Central Asia (Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine), Middle East and North Africa (Iraq), and South Asia (Bhutan) are underway or being considered.
With the exception of Module 3 (school finances), the datasets distributed here were harmonized to a common standard to facilitate comparisons across countries and over time. The data was also anonymized to preserve the confidentiality of the data of respondents. The harmonization and anonymization work were conducted by the SDI team at the World Bank.
SDI surveys are documented in the Microdata Library as Service Delivery Indicators Health Surveys and Service Delivery Indicators Education Surveys.
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between and within countries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, and infrastructure such as blackboards and toilets). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and the key resources necessary for students to learn.
Mozambique Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented in 2014 by COWI Mozambique in close coordination with the World Bank SDI team. Information was collected from 200 primary public schools, 1,006 teachers, and 1,731 pupils.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Schools, teachers, students.
v02, harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution.
Module 3 (School Management/Finances) was added to the collection. It is important to note that module 3’s variables were not harmonized to a common standard. Given different educational (and administrative) structures in each SDI country, questions for module 3 are uniquely designed according to the country’s interests and context. Nonetheless, the dataset was still subject to a thorough anonymization process like the rest of the datasets added to the collection.
Compared to v01, v02 changes include:
1. Data reorganized by the unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil).
2. New round of data cleaning, including renaming and relabeling variables, fixing incorrect category values, fixing incorrect value labels, adding variables from original datasets absent in the previous version, converting variables into proper variable type, deleting analysis/supervision variables, fixing and recategorizing missing observations, reordering variables to reflect instrument structure.
3. Addition of anonymized variables from module 3. Module 3 was not initially included in the previous version as the context-related uniqueness of school financial information collected in each country does not allow for harmonization.
4. New round of data harmonization (with the exception of module 3) and anonymization. For more details on the harmonization and anonymization process, please refer to the Harmonization Protocol, Harmonized Variables Codebooks, and Anonymization Protocol included as part of this collection’s documentation.
The core Education Service Delivery Indicators are:
1) Teacher Effort:
- School absence rate
- Classroom absence rate
- Time spent teaching per day
2) Teacher Knowledge and Ability:
- Minimum knowledge among teachers (mathematics, language, and pedagogy)
3) Availability of Inputs:
- Infrastructure availability
- Equipment availability
- Share of pupils with textbooks
- Observed pupil-teacher ratio
The survey also tests grade 4 pupils on mathematics, linguistics, and non-verbal reasoning. Additionally, direct observations are made to assess firsthand classroom conditions as well as school inputs and infrastructure that teachers and students have readily available.
SDI instruments also include modules on school's finances and staff/teacher rosters that include their qualifications and demographic information.
All public primary schools
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Department for International Development
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
The sampling strategy was designed with the dual aims of producing nationally representative estimates and having a minimum power of 80 percent with 0.05 significance level for comparison of key service delivery indicators. The sampling strategy also allowed for disaggregation by geographic location (rural/urban) and school size.
The strata were constructed according to two binary distinctions: urban/rural population; and above- or below-median number of pupils enrolled in the fourth grade by province and urbanization. A total of 200 public schools have been sampled. The sample was reduced from originally 300 schools due to logistical and financial problems.
Detailed information about sampling is available in the attached report.
Deviations from the Sample Design
There were concerns in the field and the original sample was altered. Please see the attached report for the details.
SDI survey estimates must be properly weighted using a sampling weight or expansion factor to estimate the representativeness of the population of interest.
School, teacher, and pupil-level sampling weights are stored in the "MOZ_2014_EDU_Weights.dta" file.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the head teacher to collect information about school finances (this data is unharmonized).
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
Data entry was done using CSPro; quality control was performed in Stata.
Datasets have been cleaned, anonymized, and harmonized using Stata.
For some variables, missing observations were recoded and/or distinctly labeled as:
Skips: "-999", or ".a"
Don't Know: "999", "99", or ".b"
Confidential Information (Anonymized): "Confidential", or ".c "
Not Available: ".n"
Estimates of Sampling Error
For more information about the sampling process, refer to “Annex A: Sampling” in the Country Report attached as documentation.
HD Practice Group, The World Bank
HD Practice Group, The World Bank
Details about the anonymization process can be found in the documentation provided with these datasets.
The harmonized, anonymized datasets are available as public files (for use under a License).
Researchers who feel that they need non-anonymized data should contact firstname.lastname@example.org with a statement of research objectives and a rationale for why they require such data. That will start the Research Use File discussion.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Ezequiel Molina, The World Bank. Mozambique Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. MOZ_2014_SDI-E_v01_M_v02_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Documentation of the Study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 2 (March 2021).
This version differs from the original version as it includes:
1. Data reorganized by unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil, time-on-task).
2. New round of data cleaning.
3. New round of data harmonization and anonymization.
4. Addition of anonymized variables from module 3 on School Management/Finances.
The metadata and documentation included in this version reflect and explain these changes.