This is the frst Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) survey conducted in Tajikistan.
The Tajik Living Standards Survey (TLSS) was conducted jointly by the State Statistical Agency and the Center for Strategic Studies under the Office of the President in collaboration with the sponsors, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank (WB). International technical assistance was provided by a team from the London School of Economics (LSE). The purpose of the survey is to provide quantitative data at the individual, household and community level that will facilitate purposeful policy design on issues of welfare and living standards of the population of the Republic of Tajikistan in 1999.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Section 1. Household information (individual level)
Section 2. Dwelling (household level)
Part 2A: Characteristics of the Dwelling
Part 2B: Expenditures on Dwelling
Section 3. Education (individuals aged 7 years +)
Section 4. Health (individual level)
Part 4A: General Health Status
Part 4B: General Utilization of Health Care Services
Part 4C: Hospital Utilization
Section 5. Employment (individuals aged 11 years +)
Part 5A: Time use
Part 5B: Employment and Wage main job
Part 5C: Employment History
Section 6. Migration
Part 6A: Place of Birth and Migration (individuals aged 15 years +)
Part 6B: Households of Displaced Persons (household level)
Part 6C: Property of displaced persons (household level)
Section 7. Sources of Income of the Household (household level)
Part 7A: General
Part 7B: Income from Social Protection Payments
Section 8. Consumption and Expenditures (household level)
Part 8A: General Expenditures
Part 8B: Household food consumption and expenditure
Part 8C: Household perception of food security and coping strategies
Section 9. List of Durables (household level)
Section 10. Agriculture (household level)
Part 10A: Agricultural activity
Part 10B: Inputs and Outputs
Part 10C: Agricultural Property
Questionnaire for Population point (PP) (population point)
Section 1. Demographic information
Section 2. Infrastructure
Section 3. Economy
Section 4. Refugees and Displaced persons
Section 5. Education
Section 6. Health
Section 7. Agriculture
Section 8. Institutions
The TLSS sample was designed to represent the population of the country as a whole as well as the strata. The sample was stratified by oblast and by urban and rural areas.
The country is divided into 4 oblasts, or regions; Leninabad in the northwest of the country, Khatlon in the southwest, Rayons of Republican Subordination (RRS) in the middle and to the west of the country, and Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) in the east. The capital, Dushanbe, in the RRS oblast, is a separately administrated area. Oblasts are divided into rayons (districts). Rayons are further subdivided into Mahallas (committees) in urban areas, and Jamoats (villages) in rural areas.
Producers and sponsors
State Statistical Agency (Goskomstat)
United Nations Development Programme
The World Bank
London School of Economics
The TLSS sample was designed to represent the population of the country as a whole as well as the strata. The sample was stratified by oblast and by urban and rural areas.
In common with standard LSMS practice a two-stage sample was used. In the first stage 125 primary sample units (PSU) were selected with the probability of selection within strata being proportional to size. At the second stage, 16 households were selected within each PSU, with each household in the area having the same probability of being chosen. [Note: In addition to the main sample, the TLSS also included a secondary sample of 15 extra PSU (containing 400 households) in Dangara and Varzob. Data in the oversampled areas were collected for the sole purpose of providing baseline data for the World Bank Health Project in these areas. The sampling for these additional units was carried out separately after the main sampling procedure in order to allow for their exclusion in nationally representative analysis.] The twostage procedure has the advantage that it provides a self-weighted sample. It also simplified the fieldwork operation as a one-field team could be assigned to cover a number of PSU.
A critical problem in the sample selection with Tajikistan was the absence of an up to date national sample frame from which to select the PSU. As a result lists of the towns, rayons and jamoats (villages) within rayons were prepared manually. Current data on population size according to village and town registers was then supplied to the regional offices of Goskomstat and conveyed to the center. This allowed the construction of a sample frame of enumeration units by sample size from which to draw the PSU.
This procedure worked well in establishing a sample frame for the rural population. However administrative units in some of the larger towns and in the cities of Dushanbe, Khojand and Kurgan-Tubbe were too large and had to be sub-divided into smaller enumeration units. Fortuitously the survey team was able to make use of information available as a result of the mapping exercise carried out earlier in the year as preparation for the 2000 Census in order to subdivide these larger areas into enumeration units of roughly similar size.
The survey team was also able to use the household listings prepared for the Census for the second stage of the sampling in urban areas. In rural areas the selection of households was made using the village registers – a complete listing of all households in the village which is (purported to be) regularly updated by the local administration. When selecting the target households a few extra households (4 in addition to the 16) were also randomly selected and were to be used if replacements were needed. In actuality non-response and refusals from households were very rare and use of replacement households was low. There was never the case that the refusal rate was so high that there were not enough households on the reserve list and this enabled a full sample of 2000 randomly selected households to be interviewed.
The questionnaire was based on the standard LSMS for the CIS countries, and adapted and abridged for Tajikistan. In particular the health section was extended to allow for more in depth information to be collected and a section on food security was also added. The employment section was reduced and excludes information on searching for employment.
The questionnaires were translated into Tajik, Russian and Uzbek.
The TLSS consists of three parts: a household questionnaire, a community level questionnaire and a price questionnaire.
Household questionnaire: the Household questionnaire is comprised of 10 sections covering both household and individual aspects.
Community/Population point Questionnaire: the Community level or Population Point Questionnaire consists of 8 sections. The community level questionnaire provides information on differences in demographic and economic infrastructure. Open-ended questions in the questionnaire were not coded and hence information on the responses to these qualitative questions is not provided in the data sets.
Summary of Section contents
The brief descriptions below provide a summary of the information found in each section. The descriptions are by no means exhaustive of the information covered by the survey and users of the survey need to refer to each particular section of the questionnaire for a complete picture of the information gathered.
This includes individual level information of all individuals in the household. It establishes who belongs to the household at the time of the interview. Information on gender, age, relation to household head and marital status are included. In the question relating to family status, question 7, “Nekared” means married where nekar is the Islamic (arabic) term for marriage contract. Under Islamic law a man may marry more than once (up-to four wives at any one time). Although during the Soviet period it was illegal to be married to more than one woman this practice did go on. There may be households where the household head is not present but the wife is married or nekared, or in the same household a respondent may answer married and another nekared to the household head.
This section includes information covering the type of dwelling, availability of utilities and water supply as well as questions pertaining to dwelling expenses, rents, and the payment of utilities and other household expenses. Information is at the household level.
This section includes all individuals aged 7 years and older and looks at educational attainment of individuals and reasons for not continuing education for those who are not currently studying. Questions related to educational expenditures at the household level are also covered. Schooling in Tajikistan is compulsory for grades (classes) 1-9. Primary level education refers to grades 1 - 4 for children aged 7 to 11 years old. General secondary level education refers to grades 5-9, corresponding to the age group 12-16 year olds. Post-compulsory schooling can be divided into three types of school:
Upper secondary education covers the grades 10 and 11.
Vocational and Technical schools can start after grade 9 and last around 4 years. These schools can also start after grade 11 and then last only two years. Technical institutions provide medical and technical (e.g. engineering) education as well as in the field of the arts while vocational schools
provide training for employment in specialized occupation.
Tertiary or University education can be entered after completing all 11 grades.
Kindergarten schools offer pre-compulsory education for children aged 3 – 6 years old and information on this type of schooling is not covered in this section.
This section examines individual health status and the nature of any illness over the recent months. Additional questions relate to more detailed information on the use of health care services and hospitals, including expenses incurred due to ill health. Section 4B includes a few terms, abbreviations and acronyms that need further clarification. A feldscher is an assistant to a physician. Mediniski dom or FAPs are clinics staffed by physical assistants and/or midwifes and a SUB is a local clinic. CRH is a local hospital while an oblast hospital is a regional hospital based in the oblast administrative centre, and the Repub. Hospital is a national hospital based in the capital, Dushanbe. The latter two are both public hospitals.
This section covers individuals aged 11 years and over. The first part of this section looks at the different activities in which individuals are involved in order to determine if a person is engaged in an income generating activity. Those who are engaged in such activities are required to answer questions in Part B. This part relates to the nature of the work and the organization the individual is attached to as well as questions relating to income, cash income and in-kind payments. There are also a few questions relating to additional income generating activities in addition to the main activity. Part C examines employment history in the previous two years.
This section covers all individuals aged 15 years and older and determines how long respondents have resided in their present location. Part B relates to households who were displaced, detailing how many in the family were affected and for what reason. Part C relates to the property left by those who are displaced.
Sources of Income of the Household
This section covers specified sources of income over the previous month from all members in the household. Part A includes wage income, movable property and alimony, while part B includes information on income from social protection payments, such as employment pensions and family allowances. Part B also includes a summary question on total income from all sources for all household members.
Consumption and Expenditures
This section gathers information on household expenditure and in particular consumption. Part A focuses on a summary of 24 categories of household expenditures undertaken over the last month and the last year. Part B covers information on 33 specified food items, including expenditure on the item as well as the value of growing and consuming the goods. Part C provides information on issues of food security and coping strategies and includes questions on subjective perceptions of welfare.
List of Durables
This section includes ownership of 16 durable items, including motorcycles and cars.
This section provides information across a variety of agricultural aspects. Part A focuses on land use and ownership across different specified land types, including how much was earned across land types. Part B includes questions on costs of inputs and outputs of land and livestock. Part C covers income and expenditure across 17 specified agricultural related property including different livestock and different equipment.
This section of the questionnaire looks at particular aspects of the health of married women, in particular fertility issues. Another part of this section focuses on information on each child born to the respondent.
Population Point /Community
This section provides information on the nature of the different population points. Part 1 covers demographic information such as population of the community and the ethnic make-up. The part focusing on infrastructure includes questions on the availability of different utilities, distance from the capital and the quality of the roads. A part on the nature of the economy of the population point includes information on the economic activity in the area, the existence of state enterprises and to what extent economic conditions have changed over the last year. Another part focuses on information on refugees or displaced persons in the population point. There is a section on education relating to the school attendance of boy and girls and to the quality of the schools in the area. Information on the availability of health facilities and medication, as well as the quality of these services is also included. A section on agriculture focuses on the nature of the agricultural activities in the community, including questions on irrigation and the use of specific inputs. There is also a question on the average wage of specified agricultural labour. The final part provides information on the availability and accessibility of 45 different institutions and services, for example, dentists, kindergartens, state employment services, theatres and bus stations.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Notes
A total of 60 fieldwork staff were recruited and divided into 12 fieldwork teams of 1 supervisor plus 4 interviewers. Out of the 12 Supervisors, 8 were employees of the State Statistical Agency and 4 were from the Center for Strategic Research. Of the 48 interviewers, 36 were employees of
the State Statistical Agency and the remaining 12 were from other government and public organizations.
Supervisors were trained over a period of 5 days in March 1999 which included two days of training, two days of field work which was used to pilot the survey and one day summary discussion. The Supervisors then also participated in the training for the interviewers, which was also held over 5 days prior to the start of the main fieldwork operation. The main survey began on 3rd May 1999.
The household questionnaire was piloted over 2 days in 3 Jamoats. A total of 40 households were surveyed over 2 days. Pilot projects were selected in Dushanbe in October and Frunze rayons (two Mahalla Committees), Gissar rayon (two jamoats) and Varzob rayon (three jamoats). Each interviewer surveyed 4 households over 2 days, with a total of 192 households covered in 2 days. Supervisors were responsible for overseeing the sampling methodology of households and ensuring the questionnaires were completed correctly.
A few selected jamoats that were initially selected had to be replaced since permission to sample in those areas was not granted. Permission was obtained from the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) which control parts of the Karategin Valley.
In rural areas, it took longer to complete the interviews because more time was needed to respond to the questions on agriculture, definitions of income and covering the greater number of children in the household. In cities, (particularly Dushanbe) there were a few problems with respondents not willing to participate.
In only a few cases were the female questionnaires completed in the presence of the respondent's husband. In a few regions, the interviewers encountered additional problems including the exposure to the risk of typhoid and scabies, and had to take precautions when carrying out the interviews.
Worldb Bank LSMS
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Tajikistan State Statistical Agency - Goskomstat. Tajikistan Living Standards Survey 1999. Ref. TJK_1999_LSMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on [date]
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