The KMPS consists of five components: a household questionnaire; an adult questionnaire; a child questionnaire; a food price and availability survey; and a survey on community and social infrastructure.
The household questionnaire was administered to the person who best knew the business and concerns of the family, its income and expenditures, and the health of all its members. This respondent may not necessarily have been the head of the household, however the household questionnaire was not to be administered to a child.
Identification data (module A)
This module records the raion and settlement in which the household is situated, a unique household identification number, the date of the interview and its duration, and identifies the interviewer. The unique household identification number, HID, is constructed: HID = AA2´1000+AA3, where AA2 is the settlement identifier and AA3 is a number ranging from 1 to the total number of households sampled from a particular settlement.
Household composition (module B)
This module presents a household roster which is designed to collect basic demographic information on members of the household and establishes the relationship between them. A household was defined to include people who reside in the given living quarters, share income and expenditures, and conduct housekeeping together. In determining who was in a particular household, the exact familial relationship between people was irrelevant. Children under 18, unmarried and living elsewhere as students were considered members of the household. Children 18 years and older who were not living with the family were not considered members of the household (even if such people were materially helped by the household). In the individual questionnaires, information is only collected for household members.
Housing (module C)
This module collects information on the type, construction, size and ownership of the housing unit and how long the family has been residing there. It establishes the presence of amenities such as electricity, centralized heating and water supply, sanitation and telephone. Information is collected on other forms of housing owned by the family. The module also establishes the presence and approximate value of consumer durables such as refrigerators, washing machines, televisions, autos or trucks and carpets, and whether or not any of these items were sold in the last twelve months.
Agriculture and animal husbandry (module D)
This module establishes whether the household had the use of land for farming and animal husbandry, and if so, how much land was available and what was the ownership situation. The module considers three aspects of farming and animal husbandry:
· The home production of crops (including vegetables, fruit, grains and tobacco) over the past 12 months is recorded. There are details on the quantity produced, sold, consumed by the family and given free to relatives and others. There is no information on the value of sales of each item, but the overall value of crop production sold in the past 30 days is recorded.
· Information is recorded on the ownership of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, poultry, rabbits and bee hives. For each type of animal, the module records current numbers owned, changes in numbers over the last 12 months (and reasons for this), sales, and the respondent's estimate of the current market price of the animal.
· Details of the home production of meat, poultry, milk, eggs, honey, wool and pelts over the previous 12 months are provided. There is information on the quantity produced (and what it could currently be sold for), sold, consumed by the family and given free to relatives and others. The overall earnings from sales of animal products in the last 30 days is also recorded.
Expenditures (module E)
This module records household expenditures under four separate reference periods:
· 7 day reference period: Details on the quantity purchased and amount paid for 68 foods are recorded. For important foods (bread, meat, milk, eggs, potatoes and rice) there is a record of the quantity purchased from different sources (state store, cooperative or private store). The amount spent on eating out in the past 7 days is recorded.
· 30 day reference period: This reference period includes information on the amount spent on medicine, fuels, services (eg. public and private transportation, repair work of clothing, furniture and appliances), rental for housing and utilities (cold and hot water, heating and power). There is also data collected on miscellaneous expenses such as tuition fees, other medical treatment (excluding medicine), purchases of financial assets and other financial transactions. The value of either monetary or in-kind gifts to relatives and others is also recorded.
· 3 month reference period: Expenditures on clothing and footwear are recorded.
· 12 month reference period: Expenditures on household appliances, transportation, housing and furnishings are recorded.
Income (module F)
This module records all sources and amounts of income earned by the household over the past 30 days as well as total income earned. Where the income received was in the form of a benefit or in-kind, the household was requested to estimate the monetary value. There is information on the following income sources:
· The total amount of wage income earned by the household and also income from the sale of products from a private land plot or farm were recorded. However there is more detailed information on these income sources in the adult questionnaire and module D of the household questionnaire respectively, so this section is mainly useful for crosschecking purposes.
· Subsidies from employers and local authorities (eg. allowances for vacation, nursery school fees, food, public transport, medical treatment, housing) were recorded. The household was asked whether it received any fuel subsidies, but the value of these was not recorded.4
· Childcare allowances (one-time childbirth benefits, childcare benefits and single mothers' childcare benefit) were recorded and if a household was eligible for such benefits but did not receive them, then the reason for this was established.
· Gifts or charity from persons outside the household (relatives, friends, religious groups, international organizations, other organizations or private individuals) were recorded.
· Income from other sources (pensions, stipends, sickness pay, unemployment benefits, sales of the products of individual labor activity, sales of private belongings, rental property, invested capital, insurance payments, alimony payments and changes in financial assets) were recorded.
Interviewer remarks (module G)
This section records the interviewer's opinions on the success of the interview and likely accuracy of the data collected.
The adult individual questionnaire was administered personally to every member of the household 14 years and older, preferably privately. Interviewers were not permitted to fill out an adult questionnaire based on answers provided by another member of the household.
Identification data (module H)
This module records the same information provided in module A in the household questionnaire. In addition to basic demographic information, it records the household identification number, HID (=A1H3), and the position of the individual on the household roster, PID (=A1H4).
Migration (module I)
This module records information on:
· the birthplace of the respondent and, if applicable, the place he/she resided before moving to the current area of residence
· residential permits
· language used at home and by parents
· education of parents
Labor (module J)
This module has information on:
· Primary employment: This section records information on the primary job of the respondent if it involves working in an enterprise, organization, collective or state farm, or cooperative. There are details on the respondent's occupation, primary duties, ownership of place of work, and payment in last 30 days (less deductions). There is also information on hours of work in the last 7 days and whether the respondent worked more or less than usual in the last 7 days (and reasons for which). Job satisfaction and willingness to retrain are also recorded.
· Secondary employment: If the respondent held an additional paid job, this section details the type of enterprise and amount paid in the last 30 days (less deductions).
· Entrepreneurial activity: This section records information on businesses owned (or partowned) by the respondent. For businesses producing goods, it records what is produced and the value of finished goods and expenditures in the past 30 days. For businesses involved in trade operations, it records what was traded, whether goods were bought abroad (and from where), the value of goods sold and bought in the past 30 days and expenditures over the past 30 days. For businesses rendering services it records the type of service rendered and the value of receipts and expenditures over the past 30 days. For all types of business, there is also information on the percentage of the business owned by the respondent, who else owns the business, the value of business assets, the number of employees (both household members and not) and profit received over the past 30 days.
· Other work: This section records income earned from any other work other than what was mentioned in the sections above.
· Current well-being: The respondent is asked for his/her perception about his/her current economic situation and the prospects for the future.
· Education: This section measures the years of 'general secondary education' as well as completion of specialized vocational, secondary, and higher education.
· Pensioners: Pensioners are asked the type and amount of pension received in the last 30 days.
· Unemployed and inactive: This section is aimed at identifying and recording information on those who are either unemployed or who are not in the labor force. It is possible to establish the duration of unemployment as well as how long a respondent has been out of the labor force (and the reason why the respondent is not in the labor force). Discouraged jobseekers (not actively seeking work but would like to work) can be identified. For those actively seeking work, there is information on how the person has sought work, usage of the government employment service, attitude to retraining and receipt of unemployment benefits.
· Summary questions: Module J also provides a summary question on the total income earned in the past 30 days from all sources and the respondent's main occupation at the present.
Health data in the KMPS
There are five modules which collect information on health issues. The nature of the health data collected, and the way it was collected is one way in which the KMPS differs from the usual LSMS. The following five sub-sections briefly summarize the data collected in the health related modules of the adult questionnaire.
Morbidity and use of medical facilities (module L)
The information in this module is provided by the respondent. The respondent was asked to describe any medical problems over the past 30 days and whether medical attention was sought. If the respondent saw a doctor in the last 30 days5 there is information on the type of medical attention (visit to doctor or home visit), and its cost. If the respondent was hospitalized in the past 30 days, there is information on the cost of treatment, including medicine. There is also information on availability of medicine, usage and cost of preventative care, and number of days missed from work or school because of illness.
Self-reported health evaluation (module M)
The information in this module is provided by the respondent. The respondent was asked for his/her height, weight, and perception of health and state of mind, and ability to work and perform daily activities. The respondent was also asked whether he/she had any difficulties performing a number of activities such as walking, running, lifting, eating and dressing. For those respondents with health problems which affected their ability to perform day to day tasks, information was collected on who provided care and help. Information was collected on the existence and treatment of health problems such as diabetes, miocardial infarction and cerebral hemorrhage, and eyesight and hearing problems. Information on the respondent's usage of tea, coffee, tobacco and alcohol was also collected in this module.
Anthropometric measurements (module Q)
The information in this module is gathered by the interviewer. In this module data was collected on the respondents height, weight, hip and waist circumference and also whether he/she had any amputated limbs. If the interviewer did not have any medical training, then the data was collected by trained medical personnel.
Questions for women (module N)
The information in this module is provided by the respondent. Female respondents answered questions about their experience with pregnancy, childbirth, abortion, and birth control.
Nutrition (module P)
The information in this module is provided by the respondent. The respondent was asked to reconstruct from memory what food was consumed in either the preceding 24-hours or during the previous day. The interviewer asked questions to help the respondent remember what was eaten; from the answers of the respondent the interviewer assessed the type, quality and quantity of consumed food. To help evaluate the quantity of food consumed, a 'food album' with pictures of various portions of food products and dishes (in actual size) were used.6 In addition, quantities of foods were in units familiar to the person being questioned (for example, cups, glasses, platefuls and spoonfuls). The food albums could also be shown at the end of the questioning to help the respondent recall food which perhaps he or she had forgotten.
Time use (module O)
This module asked respondents to estimate time spent on different activities (and, if relevant, time spent commuting to them) over the previous seven days (not including the day of the interview). Information was collected on the following activities: working (including work at an enterprise/organization and home, entrepreneurial activity, farming, and individual labor activity); work on the garden at home, dacha or garden plot; studies; shopping for food and non-food items; obtaining household services (laundry, tailor etc.); other home duties including cooking, washing dishes and cleaning; caring for children and other relatives; sleeping and recreational activities.
The child individual questionnaire was completed for every member of the household under the age of 14 years. The questionnaire was administered to the adult member of the household who was responsible for caring for the child. Modules I, O, Q and R collect information to similar their counterpart modules in the adult questionnaire. Module H collects the same information as the counterpart module in the adult questionnaire, except there is an additional variable (A1H11) which identifies the adult member of the household who answered the questions on behalf of the child.
Child care (module K)
This module has information about the level of education of the child and if the child currently attends school, the cost of fees and textbooks are recorded. If applicable, there is information on the reason(s) why the child does not currently attend school. There is information on whether the child has missed school during the past year because of agricultural work commitments, and if applicable, how much school was missed. The module also has information on whether the child has been cared for by relatives who are not members of the household and, if so, on how many days in the last week did this occur (and the average number of hours per day). Similar questions are asked regarding those children who attended kindergarten, nursery school, or the like.
Morbidity and use of medical facilities (module L)
This module asks the same questions as its counterpart in the adult questionnaire and collects additional information vaccinations received by the child, their cost and, if applicable, reasons for not receiving them.
Health evaluation (module M)
This module asks the respondent the child's height and weight and for an assessment of the child's physical and mental health. Data is collected on the presence and treatment of diabetes and the presence of medical conditions such as head cold, sore throat, diarrhoea or other irregularities in defecation and leukemia. There is also information on the child's consumption of tea and coffee.
Nutrition (module P)
This model evaluates the food consumption of the child using the same techniques used in the nutrition module of the adult questionnaire. For those children attending school or nursery school, interviewers were instructed to additionally question the person(s) with knowledge of the child's food intake at that institution (for example, teacher, day care worker or school cafeteria worker). It should be noted that the KMPS does not contain any information on breast-feeding.
SURVEY OF AVAILABILITY AND PRICES OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND FUEL
This survey contains three sections of information relating to retail outlets selling food products in the 'local area'8 of the households participating in the survey. The local area of the households was determined by the following method:
· housewives from the households participating in the survey were questioned, and from this a preliminary list of retail outlets was constructed.
· from this list of frequented retail outlets, a list of all streets and alleys within walking distance was constructed.
· the observer then walked down these listed streets and alleys and constructed a complete list of all retail outlets.
The survey includes preliminary identification data (from the cover page of the questionnaire) and details the raion, settlement identifier, census enumeration district, date of survey and also the name of the person conducting the survey. The sections contained in the survey are:
· Form A: List of all retail outlets in the neighborhood selling food, drinks and tobacco products. This section has data on up to 20 retail outlets. There is information on location, type, hours of operation, number of employees, type of ownership, and goods sold. There are seven types of sales site: general food stores and specialized food stores selling milk and milk products; bread; meat, fish and poultry; fruits and vegetables; alcohol; tobacco products. There are three ownership classifications: state owned; nonstate, cooperative, commercial etc.; and private owned.
· Form B: List of all retail outlets in the neighborhood selling fuel: This section has data on up to 6 retail outlets. There is information on location, type of ownership (same classifications as above) and type of fuel sold (gasoline, coal, wood, diesel fuel, kerosene).
· Form C: Classification of retail outlets in the neighborhood selling food, drinks and tobacco products. This section provides a table in which each trade site listed in Form A is classified by type of ownership and products sold. The purpose of this form is to help the reporter identify which trade sites are to be used in the compilation of data on product availability and prices (see form E).
· Form D: Classification of retail outlets in the neighborhood selling fuel. This section provides a table in which each trade site listed in Form B is classified by type of ownership and products sold. The purpose of this form is to help the reporter identify which trade sites are to be used in the compilation of data on product availability and prices.
· Form E: Availability and price of food products in different stores in the neighborhood. This section has 14 parts each part covering a different combination of type of sales site and type of ownership. Information is collected on 99 products from general grocery stores; 15 products from milk stores; 15 products from bread stores; 21 products from meat, fish and poultry stores; 26 products from vegetable and fruit stores; 8 products from alcohol stores; and 3 products from tobacco stores. The section contains information on the availability of the different products and the prices of the cheapest and most expensive types or brands of each product. The information is recorded for only one store in each classification. This store was not chosen randomly; reporters were given the freedom to find the most prominent or well-stocked stores in a particular classification.
SURVEY OF COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Basic information on community services, infrastructure and economic structure were collected in this survey. A community, or 'immediate place of residence' is defined as the microcensus enumeration district in urban areas and the settlement (village) in rural areas. The survey includes preliminary identification data and details the raion, settlement identifier, microcensus enumeration district, date of survey and also the name of the person conducting the survey. In addition, there is information enabling the community data to be linked to the household data. The information collected on communities where sampled households live can be grouped as
· Population and area. For urban communities, information was also gathered on the population and area of the entire urban area (or settlement) where the community is located.
· Rights to use of land for personal and commercial purposes.
· Distance to raion and oblast centers and the nearest big city.
· Existing types of housing and types of housing available for purchase by private individuals.
· Transportation and communication infrastructure. Specifically, data were collected on: roads; telegraph, telephone, television and postal services; newspaper service; public libraries; recreational centers; and public transport.
· Presence of social service facilities such as public health facilities, schools and social welfare offices.
· Restaurants and other public eating places.
· Labor markets and Employment Service Offices. Specifically, data were collected on types of occupations available (with monthly salary), existence of Employment Service Office and whether or not any state enterprises have recently been shut down.
· Presence of services such as: banks, police, fire brigade.
· Existence of social infrastructure such as: sources of water, sanitation, electricity