Survey ID Number
CGAP Smallholder Household Survey 2016, Building the Evidence Base on the Agricultural and Financial Lives of Smallholder Households
The smallholder household survey used three questionnaires: household questionnaire, multiple respondent questionnaire and single respondent questionnaire.
1. Household questionnaire
Respondent: Head of the household, their spouse or a knowledgeable adult household member
Content: list of all household members and their basic characteristics (age, gender, education attainment, schooling status, relationship with the household head), and information about household assets and dwelling characteristics in order to drive poverty status.
2. Multiple respondent questionnaire
Respondents: All household members aged 15 and over who contribute to the household income or participate in its agricultural activities
Content: Demographics (e.g. land size, crop and livestock, decision-making, associations and markets, financial behaviors), agricultural activities (e.g. selling, trading, consuming crops, livestock, suppliers), and household economics (e.g., employment, income sources, expenses, shocks, borrowing, saving habits, investments).
3. Single respondent questionnaire
Respondent: One randomly-selected adult in the household among household members who contribute to the household income or participate in its agricultural activities.
Content: Agricultural activities (e.g. market relationships, storage, risk mitigation), household economics (e.g. expense prioritization, insurance, financial outlook), mobile phones (e.g., usage, access, ownership, desire and importance), and formal and informal financial tools (e.g., ownership, usage, access, importance, attitudes toward financial service providers).
The questionnaires were translated into Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba and Pidgin and pretested. After the pretest, debriefing sessions were held with the pretest field staff and the questionnaires were modified based on the observations from the pretest. After the questionnaires were finalized, a script was developed to support data collection on smartphones. The script was tested and validated before it was used in the field.
The smallholder household survey in Nigeria is a nationally-representative survey with a target sample size of 3,000 smallholder households. In order to take nonresponse into account, the target sample size was increased to 3,225 households assuming a response rate of 93%. The sample was designed to produce national level estimates as well as estimates for each of the six geo-political zones of
Nigeria is comprised of the following states:
- North Central: Benue, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, and Plateau
- North East: Adamawa, Bauci, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe
- North West: Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara
- South East: Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo
- South South: Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, and River
- South West: Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo
Nigeria is divided into 774 local governments (LGAs) and its last housing and population census took place in 2006. In preparation for this last census, the National Population Commission (NPopC) demarcated over 662,000 enumeration areas (EAs) for the country. From these EAs, two hierarchical master sample frames were developed by the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS): the LGA master frame and the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH). The smallholder survey used the NISH as sampling frame but retained only the EAs containing agricultural households.
Sample allocation and selection
The total sample size was first allocated to the geo-political zones in proportion to their number of agricultural EAs in the sampling frame. Within each zone, the resulting sample was then further distributed to states proportionally to their number of agricultural EAs. Given that EAs were the primary sampling units and 15 households were selected in each EA, a total number of 215 EAs were selected
The sample for the smallholder survey is a stratified multistage sample. A stratum corresponds to a state and the sample was selected independently in each stratum.
In the first stage, EAs were selected as primary sampling units with equal probability. A household listing operation was carried out in all selected EAs to identify smallholder households and to provide a frame for the selection of smallholder households to be included in the sample. In the second stage, 15 smallholders were selected in each EA with equal probability.
In each selected household, a household questionnaire was administered to the head of the household, the spouse or any knowledgeable adult household member to collect information about household characteristics. A multiple respondent questionnaire was administered to all adult members in each selected household to collect information on their agricultural activities, financial behaviors and mobile money usage. In addition, in each selected household only one household member was selected using the Kish grid and was administered the single respondent questionnaire.
The full description of the sample design can be found in the user guide for this data set.