BIOFHTASDRM (V440) reports the difference between the respondent's height and the median height of a reference population of the same age and sex, expressed in units equal to one standard deviation of the reference population's distribution. An anthropometry measure expressed in reference standard deviation units is also known as a Z-score. BIOFHTASDRM values are reported in units equal to 100 times the Z-score, to preserve two decimal places without requiring the use of a decimal point. Dividing BIOFHTASDRM by 100 will yield the height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) value.
The reference standard contains data for children up to age 18. For all women age 18 and over, the value of 215 months (17 years, 11 months) is used, based on the assumption that women are fully grown by age 18.
HEIGHTFEM (V438) reports the respondent's length or height, as measured by DHS personnel.
The complementary DHS variable BIOFHTAPCT (V439) reports the respondent's height-for-age percentile within the same reference population used in BIOFHTASDRM. The complementary DHS variable BIOFHTAPCTRM (V441) reports the respondent's height-for-age as a percentage of the median of the same reference population. Unlike z-scores, percentiles do not allow comparison across age and sex and cannot assess longitudinal change in growth status.