The survey was conducted in Mozambique between July 2018 and January 2019 by the World Bank Group (WBG). In addition to the standard ES that covers formal private sector firms with five or more employees, in Mozambique a separate survey is fielded simultaneously to collect data from micro-enterprises, formal firms with less than five employees.
The objective of the Enterprise Survey is to gain an understanding of what firms experience in the private sector. As part of its strategic goal of building a climate for investment, job creation, and sustainable growth, the World Bank has promoted improving the business environment as a key strategy for development, which has led to a systematic effort in collecting enterprise data across countries. The Enterprise Surveys (ES) are an ongoing World Bank project in collecting both objective data based on firms' experiences and enterprises' perception of the environment in which they operate.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 01. Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
Unit of analysis
Unit of analysis is establishment. An establishment is a physical location where business is carried out and where industrial operations take place or services are provided. A firm may be composed of one or more establishments. For example, a brewery may have several bottling plants and several establishments for distribution. For the purposes of this survey an establishment must make its own financial decisions and have its own financial statements separate from those of the firm. An establishment must also have its own management and control over its payroll.
Mozambique Micro-Enterprise Survey covers formal private sector firms with less than five employees.
Producers and sponsors
World Bank Group (WBG)
World Bank Group
The sample for 2018 Mozambique Micro-Enterprise Survey was selected using stratified random sampling, following the methodology explained in the Sampling Note.
Two levels of stratification were used in this country: industry and region.
In terms of industry, the universe was stratified into seven sub-sectors: mining and quarrying (ISIC Rev. 3.1 code 10-14); Food and Beverages (ISIC code 15); Metals, Machinery, Computer, Electronic (ISIC code 27, 29-31); Other Manufacturing (ISIC codes 16-26, 28, 32-37); Tourism (ISIC codes 55); Retail (ISIC code 52) and Other Services (ISIC codes 45, 50, 51, 60-64, and 72).
Note that the global methodology excludes extractives sector from the universe of inference. Consequently, for Mozambique, there are two datasets available, one that includes just the usual sectors covered by the global ES methodology, and another including only those firms that work in the extractives sector. Users who would like to analyze the combined dataset should “append” the extractive sector data to the main data file that includes only usual sectors covered by the global ES methodology.
There is no further breakdown by firm size for the micro-enterprise survey for sampling purpose and all firms are classified in to one size group, i.e., (1 to 4 employees).
Regional stratification for the Mozambique Micro-enterprise survey was done across seven provinces: Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Zambézia, Tete, Manica, Sofala and Greater Maputo.
Note: Refer to Sampling Structure section in "The Mozambique 2018 Micro-Enterprise Survey Data Set" document for further details on sampling.
Since the sampling design was stratified and employed differential sampling, individual observations should be properly weighted when making inferences about the population. Under stratified random sampling, unweighted estimates are biased unless sample sizes are proportional to the size of each stratum. With stratification the probability of selection of each unit is, in general, not the same. Consequently, individual observations must be weighted by the inverse of their probability of selection (probability weights or pw in Stata.)
Special care was given to the correct computation of the weights. It was imperative to accurately adjust the totals within each region/industry/size stratum to account for the presence of ineligible units (the firm discontinued businesses or was unattainable, education or government establishments, no reply after having called in different days of the week and in different business hours, no tone in the phone line, answering machine, fax line, wrong address or moved away and could not get the new references). The information required for the adjustment was collected in the first stage of the implementation: the screening process. Using this information, each stratum cell of the universe was scaled down by the observed proportion of ineligible units within the cell. Once an accurate estimate of the universe cell (projections) was available, weights were computed using the number of completed interviews.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
The structure of the data base reflects the fact that 2 different versions of the survey instrument were used for all registered establishments. Questionnaires have common questions (core module) and respectfully additional manufacturing- and services-specific questions. The eligible manufacturing industries have been surveyed using the Manufacturing questionnaire (includes the core module, plus manufacturing specific questions). Retail firms have been interviewed using the Services questionnaire (includes the core module plus retail specific questions) and the residual eligible services have been covered using the Services questionnaire (includes the core module). Each variation of the questionnaire is identified by the index variable, a0.
Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised.
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
The World Bank. Mozambique - Micro-Enterprise Survey (ES) 2018, Ref. MOZ_2018_MES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/portal/login.aspx on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.