Impact Evaluation of the Improvement of Land Governance to Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Farmers on Mailo-Land 2017
A baseline survey was conducted in 2017 in Uganda to assess the impact of GIZ supported pilot program to test approaches for systematic demarcation and adjudication of Mailo land occupied by tenants in the form of land inventories in 8 sub-countries in Mityana and Mubende districts of Uganda. The proposed impact evaluation on the delivery of land inventories to Mailo land will investigate the impact of the program on perceived tenure security, land-related investment by smallholders, access to credit and agricultural productivity.
The Impact Evaluation of the Improvement of Land Governance to Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Farmers on Mailo-Land will serve multiple objectives:
a) Gain better understanding of the impact of strengthening tenants' rights in Mityana and Mubembde districts. Findings are to provide critical information necessary to understand and quantify both expected impacts and risks associated with the program. Results are to be disaggregated by gender.
b) Indentify best practices as well as potential issues in the implementation process and provide recommendations to inform the design of a subsequent national roll-out to cover mail land but also similar tenure arrangements in Uganda such as Native Freeholds and Church's land.
c) Evaluation of the complementary intervention aimed at converting land inventories into certificates of occupancy (CoO)/mailo title will help indentify the best incentives for registration of CoO/mailo title as well as the benefits associated to registration vs. demarcation on key outcome variables (investment, land management, agriculture productivity).
d) Inform potential new donors' engagement in support to the implementation of the National Land Policy's strategic objectives.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The topics covered in the Impact Evaluation of the Improvement of Land Governance in Uganda to Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Farmers on Mailo-Land include:
- Education and health
- Wage employment and non market labour activities
- Housing conditions, water and sanitation
- Sources of income, financial decision making, savings, credit, borrowing and banking in the past 12 months
- Details of loan applications
- Non crop farming household enterprises activities
- Household assets
- Shocks and coping strategies
- Welfare and food security
- Decision making, bargaining and social capital (male)
- Decision making, bargaining and social capital (female)
- Gender perceptions, legal knowledge and conflicts (male)
- Gender perceptions, legal knowledge (female)
- Link with the agriculture questionnaire
- Current land holdings (owned and access rights)
- Agricultural and labor inputs
- Crops grown and typed of seeds used
- Quantification of production
- Cattle and pack animals
- Small animals
- Poultry and others
- Livestock, productio (meat)
- Livestock production (milk)
- Animal power
- Extension services
- Farm implements and machinery
- Land market and related activities
Producers and sponsors
Daniel Ali Ayalew
The World Bank
The World Bank
The World Bank
German Agency for International Development
The World Bank Group
The sample design for this evaluation is geographic discontinuity based on sub-country borders. The counterfactual group was selected from enumeration areas (EAs) bordering the sub-counties already selected for implementation, which will allow for a robust comparison between smallholders participating in the program and "non-treated" smallholders in the neighboring country whose land will not be surveyed by the GIZ project. Treatment sub-countries were purposefully selected. Villages are then selected on both sides of the treatment sub-counties were purposefully selected. Villages are then selected on both sides of the treatment sub-counties on the assumption that households living on both sides of the border are similar in observable and unobservable charateristics, this latter assumption being the key for geographic discontinuity design.
A listing was conducted in 200 Enumeration Areas randomly selected from UBOS EA maps around the sub-country borders.The listing identified "mailo" tenants who cultivate land in the EA of residence as well as their landlords (when these are known). The number of occupants interviewed were randomly drawn from the listing data stratified by tenant type (i.e., Tenant-cum-owner and pure tenant). Sample size per village was 15; 8 were allocated to tenant-cum-owners and 7 were allocated to pure tenants. In cases where there was more than the sample size in each category, selection was done at random. However, if any group had less than the required sampling number then all of them were sampled and the remaining were replaced by the other group. The baseline survey was conducted once the listing data became available to stratify and draw the sample resulting in a total sample size of 2800 households.
The response rate for the survey was 91%.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Uganda Bureau of Statistics
Republic of Uganda
The survey comprised three questionnaires namely:
1) Household questionnaire
2) Agriculture questionnaire
3) Landlord questionnaire
Each of the questionnaires had varying sections and questions.
The household questionnaire
- Section 1A: Household Identification Particulars
Information in this section was provided to the field teams by the staff at the Headquarters (HQ) before starting data collection including the names and codes pertaining to the selected Enumeration Areas (EAs). An EA generally does not have its own name but is commonly known by the name of the Local Council 1 (LC1) that it is associated with.
- Section 2: Household Roster
The purpose of this section is to identify all persons who are members of the household and to provide basic demographic information such as age, sex and marital status of each household member.
The respondent for this section was mainly the household head. In the absence of the household head respondents must be a usual member of the household and should be capable of providing all the necessary information about other members of the household. Other household members also provide information or details on particular questions concerning them if present at the time of the visit.
A household was defined as a group of people who normally live and eat their meals together for at least 6 months of the 12 months preceding the interview. Therefore, the member of the household is defined on the basis of how long they have lived in the household.
- Section 3: Education and Health
The purpose of this section was to measure the level of education or formal schooling of all household members and the health for each individual. The minimum respondent age for this section was 3 years and above.
Information was mainly collected on:
a. The literacy status of household members – i.e. member of the household who could read and write.
b. The educational attainment of each respondent and the type of school attended.
c. Health of household members during the past 6 months.
- Section 4: Wage Employment and Non-Market Labor Activities
This section covered wage employment for each household member over 10 years of age. This included wages, salary, in-kind payment in agricultural or non-agricultural activities, seasonal or not, including domestic work in the last 12 months.
This section goes on to break down the activities by ISO and time spent.
- Section 5: Housing Conditions Water and Sanitation
Data from this section was aimed at measuring the parcel/property ownership status and socio-economic status of household by assessing the quality of housing occupied and the tenure surrounding the property. Information was collected on the type of dwelling, tenure status, parcel size, how parcel was acquired, when parcel was acquired, parcel ownership rights, landlord or kibanja holder, parcel disputes and access to basic services (including water, electricity and sanitation).
A dwelling was defined as a building or a group of buildings in which the household lived. It could be a hut, a group of huts, a single house, a group of houses, etc.
- Section 6: Sources of Income (financial decision making, savings, credit, borrowing and banking)
This section gathered information on the following:
a. Sources of income and decision making at household level.
b. Financial savings and investments.
c. Access to and utilization use of mobile money services.
- Section 7: Credit
In Relation to 6 above, this gathers information on Potential borrowing sources for different household members.
- Section 8: Details of Loan Applications
This section covers the details of loans applied for by any Household member, either jointly or singly in the last 12 months.
- Section 9: Non-Crop farming household enterprise/activities
This section collected information on the presence of non-agricultural household enterprises. It includes information on income and employment derived from non- agricultural household enterprises and identifies the household member responsible for each enterprise in terms of decision making and the allocation of income generated. It also covered the involvement of household enterprises in the credit market. The respondent for each enterprise was a member of the household most knowledgeable about the activities of the enterprise.
- Section 10: Household Assets
This section aimed at collecting data to estimate the value of household assets. It also collected information on ownership of assets.
- Section 11: Shocks and Coping Strategies
Shocks were defined as events that happen suddenly. Usually they have a marked beginning and end. While they last for a short time, a few days or weeks, usually their effects are felt for a longer time. It was noted that a shock can be household specific or community wide. Examples of shocks include floods, livestock disease, fire, etc. For example, petty theft of household property was not considered as a shock.
This section gathered information on which shocks/ distress events affected the households in the last 12 months.
- Section 12: Welfare and Food Security
The purpose of this section was to collect information on vital needs and living conditions of households during the last 12 months. It provided additional information to assess household welfare. Food security was defined as the availability of food and one's access to it. Some questions regarding daily meals had a 24-hour recall period.
- Section 13A: decision making, bargaining and social capital -- male respondent
This section was asked separately to the male respondent. It sought to collect information on social capital that is involvement and belonging to groups such as; religious, farmers, cooperatives and the respondent’s frequency of involvement in the same. It also covers decision making on a number of decision items at the household.
- Section 13B: Decision making, bargaining and social capital -- female respondent
This section was asked separately to the female respondent. It sought to collect information on social capital that is involvement and belonging to groups such as; religious, farmers, cooperatives and the respondent’s frequency of involvement in the same. It also covers decision making on a number of decision items at the household.
- Section 14A: Gender Perceptions, Legal Knowledge and Conflicts – Male respondent
This section was specific to the male respondent and it collected information on legal knowledge, through scenario-based questions and hypothetical examples on both gender and legal knowledge specific to mailo land. It also covered conflict issues and conflict mitigation.
- Section 14B: Gender Perceptions, Legal Knowledge and Conflicts – Female respondent
This section was specific to the female respondent and it collected information on legal knowledge, through scenario-based questions and hypothetical examples on both gender and legal knowledge specific to mailo land. It also covered conflict issues and conflict mitigation.
- Section 19: Link to Agricultural Questionnaire
The purpose of this section was to assist the enumerator in determining which households would require agriculture and/or livestock questionnaires.
This Module focused on the first cropping season on the year 2017, that is January 2017 to June 2017. For Livestock the reference period was the last 12 months.
- Section AG2: Current land holdings (owned and access rights)
The purpose of this section is to have a complete list of all the parcels owned and/or operated by the household during the season Jan-June 2017. It allows us to refer back to these parcels in the next sections of the questionnaire, together with the rights under which they are held and their current use. It is divided into two different parts.
The first, Part A, collects information on parcels of land owned by the household.
The second, Part B, collects information on parcels of land that the household has use rights/usufruct only while the ownership right belongs to someone else.
This section is administered to households who have been involved in crop farming during the cropping season January to June 2017. Information was collected on agricultural land that these households had access during the reference period. Issues of land tenure status and land user rights were also investigated.
- Section AG 3A & B: Agricultural and Labor Inputs
This section collected information on non-labor and labor input applications at the parcel- plot level during the first cropping season of 2017 (January–June 2017) for part A (owned) and B (use rights), respectively.
- Section AG 4A & B: Crops Grown and Types Of Seeds Used
The purpose of this section was to collect information on crop cover of parcels farmed by the household. Data was collected on crops planted by the household during the first cropping season of 2017 (January–June 2017) on each plot in parcels accessed by the household through ownership or user rights, in part A and B, respectively.
- Section AG 5A & B: Quantification Of Production
Information on agricultural production is collected at the parcel-plot-crop level separately for the first cropping season of 2017 (January–June 2017) in part A and B, respectively. This section also collects data on how the household used the harvested produce.
- Section AG 6A, B & C: Livestock
The data on the ownership of (i) cattle and pack animals, (ii) small animals, and (iii) poultry and other animals was solicited in sections 6A, 6B, and 6C, respectively. Each section collects information on the dynamics of household livestock ownership at animal-type level over a given reference period, earnings from animal sales, and expenditures on animal purchases. If the household cared for animals that belonged to others, interviewers were instructed to record only ownership, sales and purchases of animals the household was entitled to keep; for instance, the young goats or sheep that the household keeps in return for caring the flock.
- Section AG 7: Livestock Production
This section collected information on the production and sales of livestock by-products. The reference period was last 12 months for livestock and three months for poultry. These are covered in different sections (7A-7B) including production of Meat, Milk, respectively.
- Section AG 8: Animal Power
This section collected information on Dung and Animal power. For any animal type raised by the households, it asks about the use of the products and the earnings from the sales or the rent of the service.
- Section AG 9: Extension Services
The section collected information on agricultural technology and extension services. It covered access to extension services and demand for agricultural technology.
Extension workers were defined as individuals employed by the government or non- governmental organizations who work as an agricultural development agent for contacting and demonstrating improved farming methods to farmers. They are responsible for organizing, disseminating, guiding and introducing technical methods in agricultural production directly to farmers, and for facilitating farmers coming into contact with cultivation methods to promote agricultural production.
- Section AG 10: Farm Implements and Machinery
This section collected information on agricultural implements and machinery. It collects information in regard to ownership and estimated value both in cash and in-kind of the implements and it has a reference period of 12 months.
- Section AG 11: Land Market and Related activities
Reference period here was past 5 years. This section collected information on land market (sold, given away as inheritance or gift or donation, lost due to expropriation) of land.
Daniel Ali Ayalew
The World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Bank Group. Impact Evaluation of the Improvement of Land Governance to Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Farmers on Mailo-Land 2017. Ref. UGA_2017_ILGUIE_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [source] on [date].