The 2019 Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS) is the second Mini Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Ethiopia. The first Ethiopia Mini-DHS, or EMDHS, was conducted in 2014. Four full-scale DHS surveys were also conducted in Ethiopia in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016.
The 2019 Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS) is a nationwide survey with a nationally representative sample of 9,150 selected households. All women age 15-49 who were usual members of the selected households and those who spent the night before the survey in the selected households were eligible to be interviewed in the survey. In the selected households, all children under age 5 were eligible for height and weight measurements. The survey was designed to produce reliable estimates of key indicators at the national level as well as for urban and rural areas and each of the 11 regions in Ethiopia.
The primary objective of the 2019 EMDHS is to provide up-to-date estimates of key demographic and health indicators. Specifically, the main objectives of the survey are:
▪ To collect high-quality data on contraceptive use; maternal and child health; infant, child, and neonatal mortality levels; child nutrition; and other health issues relevant to achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
▪ To collect information on health-related matters such as breastfeeding, maternal and child care (antenatal, delivery, and postnatal), children’s immunizations, and childhood diseases
▪ To assess the nutritional status of children under age 5 by measuring weight and height
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children age 0-5
- Woman age 15-49
- Health facility
The data dictionary was generated from hierarchical data that was downloaded from the The DHS Program website (http://dhsprogram.com).
The 2019 Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey covered the following topics:
• Usual members and visitors in the selected households
• Background information on each person listed, such as relationship to head of the household, age, sex, and educational attainment
• Characteristics of the household's dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, type of fuel used for cooking, number of rooms, ownership of livestock, possessions of durable goods, bank account/ microfinance, and main material for the floor, roof and walls of the dwelling.
• Background characteristics
• Reproduction and child mortality
• Pregnancy and postnatal care
• Child nutrition
• Child immunization (last birth)
• Child immunization (next-to-last birth)
• Information about health facility where vaccination cards are kept
• Weight and height measurement for children age 0-5
• Health facility form
• Immunization records from health facility
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged 15-49 and all children aged 0-5 resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI)
Government of Ethiopia
Central Statistical Agency (CSA)
Government of Ethiopia
Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH)
Government of Ethiopia
Provided technical assistance through The DHS Program
Government of Ethiopia
The World Bank
United States Agency for International Development
United Nations Children’s Fund
The sampling frame used for the 2019 EMDHS is a frame of all census enumeration areas (EAs) created for the 2019 Ethiopia Population and Housing Census (EPHC) and conducted by the Central Statistical Agency (CSA). The census frame is a complete list of the 149,093 EAs created for the 2019 EPHC. An EA is a geographic area covering an average of 131 households. The sampling frame contains information about EA location, type of residence (urban or rural), and estimated number of residential households.
Administratively, Ethiopia is divided into nine geographical regions and two administrative cities. The sample for the 2019 EMDHS was designed to provide estimates of key indicators for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas separately, and for each of the nine regions and the two administrative cities.
The 2019 EMDHS sample was stratified and selected in two stages. Each region was stratified into urban and rural areas, yielding 21 sampling strata. Samples of EAs were selected independently in each stratum in two stages. Implicit stratification and proportional allocation were achieved at each of the lower administrative levels by sorting the sampling frame within each sampling stratum before sample selection, according to administrative units in different levels, and by using a probability proportional to size selection at the first stage of sampling.
To ensure that survey precision was comparable across regions, sample allocation was done through an equal allocation wherein 25 EAs were selected from eight regions. However, 35 EAs were selected from each of the three larger regions: Amhara, Oromia, and the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR).
In the first stage, a total of 305 EAs (93 in urban areas and 212 in rural areas) were selected with probability proportional to EA size (based on the 2019 EPHC frame) and with independent selection in each sampling stratum. A household listing operation was carried out in all selected EAs from January through April 2019. The resulting lists of households served as a sampling frame for the selection of households in the second stage. Some of the selected EAs for the 2019 EMDHS were large, with more than 300 households. To minimise the task of household listing, each large EA selected for the 2019 EMDHS was segmented. Only one segment was selected for the survey, with probability proportional to segment size. Household listing was conducted only in the selected segment; that is, a 2019 EMDHS cluster is either an EA or a segment of an EA.
In the second stage of selection, a fixed number of 30 households per cluster were selected with an equal probability systematic selection from the newly created household listing. All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the selected households or visitors who slept in the household the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. In all selected households, height and weight measurements were collected from children age 0-59 months, and women age 15-49 were interviewed using the Woman’s Questionnaire.
For further details on sample selection, see Appendix A of the final report.
A total of 9,150 households were selected for the sample, of which 8,794 were occupied. Of the occupied households, 8,663 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 99%.
In the interviewed households, 9,012 eligible women were identified for individual interviews; interviews were completed with 8,885 women, yielding a response rate of 99%. Overall, there was little variation in response rates according to residence; however, rates were slightly higher in rural than in urban areas.
The sampling weights were adjusted for household non-response and individual non-response to obtain the survey weights for households and for women, respectively. Non-response is adjusted at the sampling stratum level. For the household survey weight, the household sampling weight is multiplied by the inverse of the household response rate by stratum. For women’s individual survey weight, the household sampling weight is multiplied by the inverse of women’s individual response rate by stratum. After adjusting for non-response, the survey weights are normalized to obtain the final standard weights that appear in the data files. The normalization process is done to obtain a total number of unweighted cases equal to the total number of weighted cases at the national level for the total number of households and women. Normalization is done by multiplying the survey weight by the estimated sampling fraction obtained from the survey for the household weight and the individual woman’s weights. The normalized weights are relative weights that are valid for estimating means, proportions, ratios, and rates but are not valid for estimating population totals or for pooled data.
For further details on sampling weights, see Appendix A.4 of the final report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field Staff
The EMDHS main training was conducted from February 27 to March 19, 2019, at Central Hotel in Hawassa. EPHI recruited and trained 151 health professional field staff for the main fieldwork to serve as female interviewers, female anthropometrists, female CAPI supervisors, field supervisors, regional coordinators, and their respective reserves. The objective of the training was to enable participants to administer both paper- and CAPI-based questionnaires and to take anthropometric measurements. The training course consisted of instructions regarding interviewing techniques and field procedures, a detailed review of questionnaire content, instructions on how to administer the paper and CAPI questionnaires, mock interviews between participants in the classroom, and practice interviews with real respondents in areas outside the survey sample. During the main training, all anthropometrists underwent a rigorous standardisation process to ensure the accuracy and precision of their anthropometric measurements. Practice standardisation exercises were conducted with children age 0-59 months.
Twenty-five interviewing teams carried out data collection for the 2019 EMDHS. Each team consisted of one field supervisor, one female CAPI supervisor, two female interviewers, and one female anthropometrist. In addition to the field teams, 11 regional coordinators were assigned, one for each region. The regional coordinator regularly visited and remained with respective teams throughout the fieldwork period to supervise and monitor their work and progress. Moreover, 10 staff members from EPHI coordinated and supervised fieldwork activities. EPHI researchers, an ICF technical specialist, a consultant, and representatives from other organisations, including CSA, FMoH, the World Bank, and USAID, supported the fieldwork monitoring. Data collection took place over a 3-month period, from March 21, 2019, to June 28, 2019.
Central Statistical Agency
Government of Ethiopia
Five questionnaires were used for the 2019 EMDHS: (1) the Household Questionnaire, (2) the Woman’s Questionnaire, (3) the Anthropometry Questionnaire, (4) the Health Facility Questionnaire, and (5) the Fieldworker’s Questionnaire. These questionnaires, based on The DHS Program’s standard questionnaires, were adapted to reflect the population and health issues relevant to Ethiopia. They were shortened substantially to collect data on indicators of particular relevance to Ethiopia and donors to child health programmes.
All electronic data files were transferred via the secure internet file streaming system (IFSS) to the EPHI central office in Addis Ababa, where they were stored on a password-protected computer. The data processing operation included secondary editing, which required resolution of computer-identified inconsistencies and coding of open-ended questions. The data were processed by EPHI staff members and an ICF consultant who took part in the main fieldwork training. They were supervised remotely by staff from The DHS Program. Data editing was accomplished using CSPro System software. During the fieldwork, field-check tables were generated to check various data quality parameters, and specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. Secondary editing, double data entry from both the anthropometry and health facility questionnaires, and data processing were initiated in April 2019 and completed in July 2019.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: nonsampling errors and sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2019 Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2019 EMDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability among all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
Sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95% of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2019 EMDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulas. Sampling errors are computed in SAS, using programs developed by ICF. These programs use the Taylor linearization method to estimate variances for survey estimates that are means, proportions, or ratios. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: A more detailed description of estimates of sampling errors are presented in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
- Height and weight data completeness and quality for children
- Number of enumeration areas completed by month, according to region, Ethiopia Mini-DHS 2019
See details of the data quality tables in Appendix C of the final report.
Information about The DHS Program
The DHS Program
The DHS Program
Data and Data Related Resources
The DHS Program
Request Dataset Access
The following applies to DHS, MIS, AIS and SPA survey datasets (Surveys, GPS, and HIV).
To request dataset access, you must first be a registered user of the website. You must then create a new research project request. The request must include a project title and a description of the analysis you propose to perform with the data.
The requested data should only be used for the purpose of the research or study. To request the same or different data for another purpose, a new research project request should be submitted. The DHS Program will normally review all data requests within 24 hours (Monday - Friday) and provide notification if access has been granted or additional project information is needed before access can be granted.
DATASET ACCESS APPROVAL PROCESS
Access to DHS, MIS, AIS and SPA survey datasets (Surveys, HIV, and GPS) is requested and granted by country. This means that when approved, full access is granted to all unrestricted survey datasets for that country. Access to HIV and GIS datasets requires an online acknowledgment of the conditions of use.
A dataset request must include contact information, a research project title, and a description of the analysis you propose to perform with the data.
A few datasets are restricted and these are noted. Access to restricted datasets is requested online as with other datasets. An additional consent form is required for some datasets, and the form will be emailed to you upon authorization of your account. For other restricted surveys, permission must be granted by the appropriate implementing organizations, before The DHS Program can grant access. You will be emailed the information for contacting the implementing organizations. A few restricted surveys are authorized directly within The DHS Program, upon receipt of an email request.
When The DHS Program receives authorization from the appropriate organizations, the user will be contacted, and the datasets made available by secure FTP.
GPS/HIV Datasets/Other Biomarkers
Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of The DHS Program. All reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to The DHS Program Data Archive in a Portable Document Format (pdf) or a printed hard copy.
Datasets are made available for download by survey. You will be presented with a list of surveys for which you have been granted dataset access. After selecting a survey, a list of all available datasets for that survey will be displayed, including all survey, GPS, and HIV data files. However, only data types for which you have been granted access will be accessible. To download, simply click on the files that you wish to download and a "File Download" prompt will guide you through the remaining steps.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (May 2021). Metadata is excerpted from "Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2019" Report.