Integrating Sanitation Programming in the Pantawid Pamilya Program 2015-2018, Impact Evaluation
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
This impact evaluation (IE) was designed to evaluate the integration of sanitation into the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), with an overall aim to test the effectiveness of a combination of hardware and financial subsidies to encourage adoption of improved sanitation facilities among the poorest households in rural areas of the Philippines. While the original research endeavored to measure health and nutrition outcomes, the final evaluation primarily focused on the upgrade and construction of latrines with the goal of achieving improved sanitation at the household level.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey instrument covered household characteristics, house and latrine quality, and child health rosters.
For this evaluation we included 17 municipalities in the provinces of Negros Oriental, Cebu and Bohol (Region 7), and Leyte and Eastern Samar (Region 8). We selected those municipalities based on the levels of poverty, open defecation, unimproved sanitation and inclusion in the ZOD coverage area.
Figure 11 of the annex to the survey report (see report under the resources tab) shows the geographic distribution of study barangays in one of the five study provinces (see Appendix for additional maps of other provinces).
All study participants were 4Ps beneficiaries, who are required to attend Family Development Sessions (FDS) that included a module on sanitation promotion.
Producers and sponsors
Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund
In each barangay, we used the National Household Targeting System (NHTS-PR) list to randomly select 15 4Ps beneficiary households to be included in our sample. At baseline 4,080 households from 272 sample barangays were interviewed. The sample was reduced at the endline survey by 30% due to budget constraints. Therefore, the endline survey included 2,849 households from 190 barangays. Additional sampling details are provided in the Study Design Annex of the report provided under the resources tab.
Deviations from the Sample Design
A small number of barangays were replaced due to safety concerns.
At endline 2,849 study households were sampled, but 154 baseline households were not reached, because their members had permanently moved to another location or the household refused to participate in the endline survey. This represents a response rate of 95%.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Data Collection Notes
Baseline and endline surveys were conducted in 2015 and 2018 respectively using handheld tablets.
Before fieldwork, Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) regional directors, municipal mayors and barangay captains were provided official World Bank letters to announce dates and locations of survey implementation. Letters were followed up by courtesy calls or personal visits to inform on the purpose of the study and broad operational plans and to request support for logistical details of how to navigate barangays. A small number of barangays were replaced due to safety concerns.
Baseline and questionnaires are structured and provided in English as related resources.
The questionnaire differed at baseline and endline, based on feedback from 4P project staff for reasons provided in the data appraisal section.
Data quality was checked using spot-checks and back-checks.
The IE originally intended to look at child diarrhea prevalence as a secondary outcome. However due to the shift in the focus of the evaluation and the different methodology of collecting the child health roster in each survey round, diarrhea was dropped as an outcome of the study. At baseline households were asked about each child’s health status separately, while at endline households were asked about the aggregate incidence of diarrhea and other symptoms for all children under 5 years old in the household. This prevents us from supplementing the definition of child diarrhea using multiple symptoms, like blood or mucus in the stool. This is important as some primary caregivers are unable to accurately diagnose diarrhea in children. Additionally, our statistical power reduces by almost two thirds, because the number individual data points goes down from 2246 at baseline to 831 at endline.
Additional information on data appraisal is provided in the Study Design annex of the survey report provided under the resources tab.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Claire Chase, World Bank. Philippines - Integrating Sanitation Programming in the Pantawid Pamilya Program (4PIE) 2015-2018, Impact Evaluation. Ref: PHL_2015-2018_S4PIE_v01_M. Downloaded from [uri] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
World Bank 2021
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Documentation of the Study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version