The Myanmar Poverty and Living Conditions Survey (MPLCS) 2015 builds on previous integrated surveys conducted in Myanmar. Although these surveys are not part of a formal series, they are considered part of a policy process that collected data for measuring social development.
Here are similar surveys conducted in Myanmar:
- Integrated Household Living Condition Assessment 2005 and 2010
- Household Income and Expenditure Survey 1989, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2012
The MPLCS 2015 is a comprehensive study of how people in Myanmar live. It is a joint analysis conducted by a technical team from the Ministry of Planning and Finance, Government of Myanmar, and the Poverty and Equity Global Practice of the World Bank. It collects data on the occupations of people, how much income they earn, and how they use this to meet the food, housing, health, education, and other needs of their families.
The Myanmar Poverty and Living Conditions Survey has the following objectives:
- Put forward trends in poverty between 2004/05, 2009/10 and 2015
- Present a measure of poverty that reflects the situation of poverty in Myanmar in 2015 at the national, urban/rural and agro-zone
- Conduct analysis about the situation and nature of poverty in Myanmar that informs policy choices and strategies.
Version 01: Edited, anonymized dataset for public distribution. The data files include 13 primary modules and poverty aggregate datasets
The 2015 MPLCS covered the following topics:
• Household composition and demographics
• Education, literacy, and training
• Labor and Employment
• Migration and remittances
• Household assets/ durables
• Household consumption expenditure
• Non-farm businesses
• Agricultural activities
• Loans and credit
• Food security and subjective assessment of well-being
• Shocks and coping strategies
• Community questionnaire
Fragile & Conflict-affected States
Agriculture & Rural Development
National coverage. The survey is a representative of the Union Territory, four agro-zones, and urban/rural areas.
The survey covered only the usual household residents, excluding people living in hotels/motels/guesthouses, military camps, police camps, orphanages/homes for the aged, religious centers, boarding schools/colleges/universities, correctional facilities/prisons, hospitals, camps/hostels for workers, and homeless/other collective quarters.
Producers and sponsors
Ministry of Planning, Finance and Industry (MOPFI)
Overseeing the data collection
Central Statistical Organization
Ministry of Planning, Finance and Industry (MOPFI)
In charge of national strategy for development of statistics
Funded data collecting, technical assistance, funded analysis of data
Government of Myanmar
Salaries for public service agents overseeing the survey
Department of Population
Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population
Provide master sample
The MPLCS sample design was developed based on the sampling frame from the April 2014 Census pre-enumeration listing data. In addition to providing statistically representative estimates at the national level, the sample was designed so that representative estimates were derived for each of four agro-ecological zones (Hills and Mountains, Dry Zone, Coastal and Delta), for the urban/rural levels overall, and specifically Yangon and surrounding area. The data are not representative at the state or region level.
The sample primary sampling units (PSUs) for this sample are the enumeration areas (EAs) defined for the 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census. There are 304 EAs and 3648 sample households.
A stratified multi-stage sample design is used for the MLPCS 2015. The stratum are agro--ecological zone and rural/urban. The classification of the EAs in the 2014 Myanmar Census of Population and Housing frame by urban and rural stratum was based on the administrative structure of the hierarchical geographic areas in Myanmar; all EAs in administrative areas defined as wards are considered urban, and all EAs in village tracks are classified as rural. The distribution of the households in the 2014 Myanmar Census of Population and Housing frame by region, urban and rural stratum, based on the preliminary Census data.
Deviations from the Sample Design
A total of 14 sample EAs selected for the MPLCS could not be enumerated, mostly because of security problems.
Refer to MPLCS 2014/15 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report.
The basic weight for each sample household is equal to the inverse of its probability of selection (calculated by multiplying the probabilities at each sampling stage). Household weight and adjusted Household weight are computed and included in the data file.
For the MPLCS, the households that could not be interviewed were generally replaced with random households from the listing for that sample EA. In general, it is important to adjust the sample household weights to take into account the non-interview households in each sample EA.
For more detail see in Section 5.2 MPLCS 2015 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report. Please note household and adjusted household weights are included in each data file as hh_wt, adj_hh_wt
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Field enumeration was conducted with 17 survey teams with one supervisor and three enumerators in each team. Field supervisors' role was to oversee each team of interviewers, including day-to-day supervision and logistics, as well as to contact community authorities, to collect community level data in each EA and to arrange appointments with respondent households. They were also responsible for field level quality control of work by field staff. The enumerators were responsible for fielding the household questionnaires.
For further information, please refer to the MPLCS 2015 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report section 3.
Data Collection Notes
The fieldwork for the MPLCS was carried out by Myanmar Survey Research (MSR), a private survey firm. MSR was contracted to prepare and carry out the field implementation, quality control, data entry and processing of the MPLCS. Given that an objective of the survey was to contribute to the strengthening of the national statistical system, government counterparts were involved in stages of the survey process, including design, implementation, and analysis. In addition to overall consultation with the government on key survey design, a team of 14 government officers from Planning Department and Central Statistical Organization of MOPF participated in the training and piloting of the survey teams and followed in the initial weeks of data collection. For further information, please refer to the MPLCS 2015 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report sections 2.3, 3.1 and 3.2.
Myanmar Survey Research
Private Survey Firm
The MPLCS questionnaire builds from earlier household expenditure and living conditions surveys conducted in Myanmar, in particular, the Integrated Household Living Conditions Assessment (IHCLA-I, 2005 and IHLCA-II, 2010) and the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (between 1989 and 2012) and WORLD BANK's LIVING STANDARD surveys. The MPLCS brings all these previous household surveys together into a single survey and provides one comprehensive source of living conditions information.
The MPLCS 2014/2015 household questionnaire consists of 13 modules.
2. Education and literacy
3a. Health status
3b. Health care
4. Labor and employment
5a. International migration (current household members)
5b. Remittances (former household members and others)
7. Household assets/durables
8a. Household consumption in the last 7 days
8b. Non-food consumption expenditure in the last 30 days
8c. Non-food consumption expenditure in 6 and 12 months
9. Non-farm enterprises
10a. Parcel roster
10d. Harvest and crop disposition
10f. Agricultural machinery and equipment
10g. Aquaculture and fisheries
11b. Financial inclusion
12. Food security/subjective assessment of well-being
13. Shocks and coping strategies
A comprehensive protocol for data quality assurance and management was put in place for data entry and processing conducted by MSR. Data entry was conducted using a double-entry approach using 30 data entry specialists using CSPro data management software. To ensure data entry quality control and in particular to catch keying mistakes, MSR applied a double-entry method, in which all the questionnaires are entered twice.
See more detail in MPLCS 2014/15 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report section 4.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Tables with calculated sampling errors and confidence intervals for the most important survey estimates, the different sources of non-sampling error presented in MPLCS 2015 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report section 5.
For detail of data quality control and measurement, see in MPLCS 2015 Survey Conduct and Quality Control Report section 3.5.
World Bank, 2015 Myanmar Poverty and Living Conditions Survey
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Produced the DDI (Metadata document)
Development Economics Data Group
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (May 2021)