Question 11. Sources of livelihood
Specify all sources available
Before asking the question a person interviewed is to be given a card with all sources of livelihood listed. After the list has been studied, the person is to name one or several sources of livelihood out of those listed. Based on the answer, the codes corresponding to one or several responses given on the enumeration questionnaire are to be marked.
"Work (other than work in own personal subsidiary plot)" is to be marked for persons who on 15 February 1999:
- worked at least for one hour, whether it was a permanent, temporary, seasonal, casual or other paid work, as well as worked for profit as self-employed, alone or with one or a few partners, both engaging or not engaging employees, irrespective of the dates of receiving a direct payment or profit for their work;
- worked without payment at the family enterprise or peasant (farming) holding;
- were temporarily absent from work, but kept formal attachment to their work.
The following is to be considered as temporary absence from work:
- illness or injury, care for sick person;
- annual leave or weekend, compensatory leave or time-off, compensation of overtime or work on a public holyday;
- statutory maternity and child-care leave;
- unpaid or paid leave on the initiative of administration;
- rotational or other specialized mode of operation;
- other similar reasons.
Besides, the category of persons having work includes working people engaged in spring, summer or autumn to perform seasonal work (e.g., at peat harvest, water transport, etc.).
Students and pensioners having employment or gainful business, and also army conscripts are to be referred to those working on the same ground as other categories of persons.
For persons engaged in non-reimbursable public or voluntary works this work is not to be marked as a source of livelihood.
"Work in own personal subsidiary plot" is to be marked for people engaged in developing their personal subsidiary plots (including gardens, kitchen gardens, etc.), agricultural works, and (or) livestock management. This source of livelihood is to be marked not only for persons engaged in production of agricultural products for sale, but also for those producing agricultural products for own consumption if this kind of activity provides a considerable contribution to the total household consumption.
"Pension" is to be marked for persons receiving old age or retirement pensions, disability pensions, survivor's pensions, long service and social pensions. Herewith the pension is to be marked for persons whom it is granted, but not for those who actually receive it. So the survivor's pension granted to children is to be marked for children, but not for mother or father, even if they are actual recipients.
"Scholarship" is to be marked for students receiving scholarships (including scholarships paid to students detached by enterprises, organizations, or employment services).
"Benefit (other than unemployment benefit)" is to be marked for persons receiving monthly social benefits:
to mothers or surrogate parents:
- for care for a child under 3 years of age;
- for care for a disabled child under 16 years of age;
- aged from 3 to 6 years old;
- aged from 6 to 13 years old;
- aged from 13 to 16 years old (pupils of day secondary general education schools, gymnasia, lyceums, and other similar educational institutions till graduation, as well as pupils educated out of private finances at higher and secondary specialized education institutions and at day courses and not receiving any scholarship -- till 18 years old);
- aged under 16 infected with human immunodeficiency virus or sick with AIDS.
Herewith "benefit" is to be marked for persons whom it is granted, but not for those who actually receive it.
"Unemployment benefit" is to be marked for persons registered with the employment services as unemployed and who are recipients of unemployment benefits.
"Other government support" is to be marked for inmates of infant's homes, children's homes, boarding schools, boarding houses for the aged and invalids and similar persons supported by the government.
"Rental income" is to be marked for persons gaining income in the form of land or housing rent.
"Interest on deposits and securities, dividends" is to be marked for:
- persons (depositors, creditors) gaining income in the form of interest on deposits, credits, loans, etc.
- stockholders (shareholders) gaining income in the form of dividends from the joint-stock company, exchange differences at marketing shares, etc.
- members of collective farms, cooperatives, societies, partnerships receiving a share of income or products available for distribution.
"Savings" is to be marked for persons living on savings.
"Dependent" is to be marked for persons living at the expense of relatives or other people, as well as for persons receiving alimony. For instance, if alimony is paid to minors, the response "dependent" is to be marked for children, but not for their mother or father, who are actual recipients of the alimony.
"Other source" is to be marked for persons having other sources of livelihood than those listed above.