Cox’s Bazar Panel Survey, High-Frequency Tracking Survey 2020-2021
Round 1, 2 and 3
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
The high frequency tracking surveys were designed to be a series of short welfare tracking surveys implemented twice a year, as follow up to the Cox's Bazar Panel Survey baseline conducted in 2019. Three rounds (referred to as R1, R2 and R3) have been successfully completed between 2020-2021.
Round 1 (R1): Apr-May 2020 (coinciding with the first national COVID-19 lockdown)
Round 2 (R2): Oct-Dec 2020 (approx. 6 months post first lockdown, in between 1st and 2nd lockdown)
Round 3 (R3): Apr-Jun 2021 (coinciding with the second national COVID-19 lockdown)
Each round collected information on three broad dimensions: labor, access to basic needs and education status of school-aged children. Round 1 collected information on labor and access to basic needs only; the module on education was added Round 2 onwards.
The baseline survey data and documentation to be used along with these datasets, can be found here: https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/V614VB
The Cox’s Bazar Panel Survey (CBPS) was completed in August 2019, through a partnership between the Yale Macmillan Center Program on Refugees, Forced Displacement, and Humanitarian Responses (Yale Macmillan PRFDHR), the Gender & Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) program, the Poverty and Equity Global Practice of the World Bank and the State and Peacebuilding Fund (SPF) administered by the World Bank. It is a representative survey of the post-2017 population of displaced Rohingya and households in host communities in the Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh.
The high-frequency phone tracking (HFT) surveys were built to maintain communication with baseline respondents while collecting rapid data on key welfare indicators on labor, basic needs and education. Three rounds of the HFT have been completed between 2020-2021, which have been used to produce welfare updates on the host and Rohingya population residing in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, particularly amidst the COVID-19 crisis.
The tracking surveys collected information across three broad welfare dimensions: labor, access to basic needs and education status of school-aged children. Round 1 collected information on labor and access to basic needs only; the module on education was added Round 2 onwards.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
Version 1.0: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
uid1: Unique household identifier
id: Individual roster id
settlement_type: identifier for host and camp population; sample is representative at this level
stratum: identifier for host high and low exposure and camp population; sample is representative at this level
hh_weight_r#: non-response adjusted household weight for respective round (#)
aa_weight_r#: non-response adjusted adult weight for respective round (#)
The CBPS High Frequency Phone Tracking Surveys collected follow-up information on key household and individual welfare indicators, broadly across three dimensions: labor, access to basic needs and education status of school-aged children. The surveys collect standard indicators across both Rohingya and host populations. However, it should be noted that camps operate under different policy regulations compared to hosts, and as such, indicators and findings, for all three dimensions, are not directly comparable.
Labor: The baseline survey administered the labor module on 2-3 randomly selected adults in the household. For the tracking survey, any one of the 2-3 adults who had completed the baseline survey were interviewed in a given tracking round. Weights were re-adjusted in each of the tracking rounds to ensure comparability with baseline population characteristics.
Access to basic needs: The basic needs modules across the rounds have collected information on a variety of topics ranging from a household's ability to have purchased basic food items, difficulties faced in obtaining said items, access to health services, consumption patterns and credit seeking behavior. All data collected is at household level.
Education: The education module was introduced in R2 and has collected information on educational engagement of school-aged children (all 3-18 years old at baseline 2019) amidst COVID-19. Note that the modules ask about any engagement in educational activities and not about school enrolment in context of COVID-19 school closures, thus comparisons with baseline figures should be approached carefully.
Note that Round 1 collected information on labor and access to basic needs only; the module on education was added Round 2 onwards.
Please refer to the published briefs for details on how the indicators and findings should be inferred. Briefs are available here: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/bangladesh/brief/cox-s-bazar-panel-survey-briefs
Cox's Bazar district and some parts of Bandarban district.
a) Rohingya population living in camps and b) host population within Cox's Bazar and Bandarban district.
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Data International Ltd.
Sama Technology Pvt. Ltd.
Survey coding and data management
WB-UNHCR Joint Data Center on Forced Displacement
Funding the study
The CBPS study has a total sample size of 5,020 households (HHs), divided among three strata covering Rohingya refugees in camps and host communities in Cox’s Bazar district and some adjacent regions of Bandarban district. The CBPS HFT attempted to follow the full baseline sample of 5,020 household in each round, with no alterations or additions made to the sampling design. The baseline sampling strategy is detailed below.
The three strata are defined as:
i. Rohingya refugees in camps
ii. High exposure hosts: hosts within 15 km (3-hour walking distance) of camps
iii. Low exposure hosts: hosts at more than 15 km (3-hour walking distance) from camps
(In the datasets, the 'settlement_type' and 'stratum' variables identify the different levels at which the sample is representative)
Defining the camp strata: A two-step data collection on Rohingya refugee prevalence within host communities (i.e., outside of camps) confirmed that prevalence in host communities was low, and that this was the case not only for newer Rohingya displaced, but for the older cohort of displaced, as well. This pattern of refugee prevalence supported having one stratum for the Rohingya displaced living in camps. The sampling strategy for the CBPS therefore focused on generating representative estimates for the camp based Rohingya population in Cox’s Bazar district.
Defining the host strata: For hosts, the sampling strategy was designed to account for the differential implications of a camp-based concentration of close to a million Rohingya displaced for different areas of Cox’s Bazar. To distinguish between host communities that are differentially affected by the arrival of the Rohingya, the CBPS sampling strategy used a threshold of three hours’ walking time from a campsite to define two survey strata: (i) host communities with potentially high exposure (HE) to the displaced Rohingya, and (ii) host communities with potentially low exposure (LE).
Sampling frame: The camp sample uses the Needs and Population Monitoring Round 12 (NPM12) data from the International Organization for Migration as the sampling frame. For the host sample, a combination of the 2011 population census, Admin 4 shapefiles from the Bureau of Statistics and publicly available Google Earth imagery and OpenStreetMaps were used to develop a sampling frame.
Stages of sample selection: For camps, NPM12 divided all camps into 1,954 majhee blocks.1 200 blocks were randomly selected using a probability proportional to the size of the camp. A full listing was carried out in each selected camp block.
For hosts, a two-stage sampling strategy was followed. The first stage of selection was done at the mauza level by strata. A random sample of 66 mauzas was drawn from a frame of 286 mauzas using probability proportional to size. Based on census population size, each mauza was divided into segments of roughly 100-150 households. The second stage selected three segments from each selected mauza with equal probability of selection.
Listing and replacements: Within each selected PSU in camps (blocks) and hosts (mauza-segments), all households (100-150 on average) were listed. Of listed households, 13 households were selected at random for interview, with an additional replacement list of 5 households.
More information on the sampling strategy and process can be found on the published working paper titled “Data Triangulation Strategies to Design a Representative Household Survey of Hosts and Rohingya Displaced in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh”.
Deviations from the Sample Design
While the original sampling strategy was designed to be representative of all camp-based Rohingya displaced, campsites with older Rohingya displaced refused to participate in the listing due to other political sensitivities. This refusal was maintained despite many attempts. Since the older Rohingya displaced were not a separate stratum, a decision was made to drop these households from the survey. Therefore, the attained sample does not contain registered refugees from the two camps – Kutupalong RC and Nayapara RC.
The host sample covers six out of eight upazilas in Cox’s Bazar District (Chakaria, Cox’s Bazar Sadar, Pekua, Ramu, Teknaf, and Ukhia upazilas) and one upazila in Bandarban District (Naikhongchhori upazila). The two upazilas not covered within the sample are the islands of Kutubdia and Maheshkhali.
The response rates at household level for each round of the CBPS HFT, based on the baseline sample of 5,020 and disaggregated at stratum-level are:
Round 1: Overall - 67%; Camps - 54%; High exposure: 71%; Low exposure: 72%
Round 2: Overall - 72%; Camps - 63%; High exposure: 81%; Low exposure: 80%
Round 3: Overall - 68%; Camps - 55%; High exposure: 81%; Low exposure: 80%
*Note that the Round 1 tracking exercise was a joint-effort between the Yale Y-Rise team and the WB team. The Yale team contacted and surveyed a randomly selected 25% of baseline households, while the WB team completed the remaining 75%. The Round 1 dataset contains data on this segment of the sample only as the welfare surveys implemented by the teams were different.
There are three types of weights in the CBPS baseline datasets. In what follows, the “level” of a dataset refers to what each observation in the data set represents i.e. a household, an individual, an occupation of an individual, etc. In general, the appropriate weight to be used is based on the unit of sampling: i.e. HH weights should be used for data collected at the level of the household (i.e. the household survey); and AA weights should be used for data collected at the level of individual adults i.e. the adult survey).
The two types of baseline weights – household weight and adult weight – have been readjusted for each tracking round based on the response rate. The respective tracking round weights are available on each dataset. Labor datasets contain aa_weight_r# and the basic needs datasets contain hh_weight_r#. The education datasets do not contain weights variable as individual roster member weights were not created during the baseline. It is expected that education outcomes will be analyzed at the household level using the hh_weight_r# weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Data Collection Notes
Each round was preceded by 1-month of preparatory activities including a 10-14 days training of enumerators and supervisors. Enumerators were trained on administering the survey questions appropriately, basic survey etiquette and usage of the CATI software. The trainings were followed by one week of mock pretesting and piloting.
A team of 20 enumerators and 3 supervisors were used in each round for data collection, with maximum effort made to retain the same team in every round. Interviews with camp respondents were conducted in the Rohingya/Chittagonian dialect, and interviews in host communities were conducted in either Bengali or the Chittagonian dialect contingent upon the respondent’s preference.
Each interview took on average 25-30 minutes to complete. The team initially faced significant network-related difficulties in conducting phone interviews in camps due to government regulations on mobile network operations in the regions inside and in immediate vicinity of camps. These network-related technical difficulties were addressed through call-backs at different times of day, and if needed across the week.
The R1 tracking questionnaire was developed as a lean version of the questionnaire implemented during the CBPS baseline. The R2 and R3 questionnaires retained certain aspects of the R1 questionnaire, but also added more detailed questions on aspects such as food security (in consultation with UN-WFP) and credit-seeking and coping behavior based on findings observed in previous rounds and dynamic research needs within the COVID-19 crisis.
One questionnaire was developed per round of data collection with modules containing household level questions on access to basic needs, credit-seeking behavior, access to health services, vaccinations and individual level questions on labor market status. Any adult, knowledgeable member of the confirmed sample household were eligible to answer the household modules. The labor module was only permitted if the respondent reached was any one of the 2-3 selected adults within the household who had completed the baseline adult questionnaires.
Questionnaires were developed in English and translated into Bengali. The translations to Bengali were thoroughly reviewed by the World Bank team’s local consultants to ensure quality. Pretesting and piloting were done using the Bengali questionnaires.
All questionnaires and modules in English are provided as external resources.
Data was collected through computer-assisted telephone interviews via SurveyCTO, an ODK-based platform. Maintenance of correct questionnaire flow was ensured through in-built skips and logic checks within the programmed questionnaire.
No manual data corrections were made on submitted interviews by the data processing team. Interviews flagged as needing field corrections due to mistaken entries were re-submitted by enumerators upon strict evaluation by the project team upon close review of the concerns raised and filtered by the program automatically before closing of data collection in each round.
In addition to logic checks within the survey program itself, extensive data consistency checks and quality indicators were developed by the WB team to monitor data quality during survey implementation. Field debriefs were held frequently during the piloting phase and first week of data collection, and once a week in latter weeks to provide feedback to enumerators and gain clarity on data quality concerns.
Post data collection, structural and consistency checks have been conducted on each round dataset and in-between datasets from different rounds.
The labor datasets in each round contain three added variables on job code, ISIC and ISCO codes which were post-coded from translated text job descriptions collected during the surveys. The post-coding was done by local consultants on the WB team with a cross-review mechanism in place to ensure cross-coder agreement and consistency. Details of the job coding methodology can be found on the file named “CBPS Job Coding Process” under external resources.
The World Bank
The World Bank
Public use files, accessible to all.
Krishnan, Nandini; Khan, Afsana; Haque, Arshia; Tillan, Pablo; Endara, Joaquin, 2020, Cox's Bazar Panel Survey High Frequency Phone Tracking Surveys Rounds 1,2,3 (CBPS HFT'20-21), [URL], World Bank, V1
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.