Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS)/Quantitative Service Delivery Survey (QSDS)
A Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) is a diagnostic tool used to study the flow of public funds from the center to service providers. It has successfully been applied in many countries around the world where public accounting systems function poorly or provide unreliable information. The PETS has proven to be a useful tool to identify and quantify the leakage of funds. The PETS has also served as an analytical tool for understanding the causes underlying problems, so that informed policies can be developed. Finally, PETS results have successfully been used to improve transparency and accountability by supporting "power of information" campaigns.
PETS are often combined with Quantitative Service Delivery Surveys (QSDS) in order to obtain a more complete picture of the efficiency and equity of a public allocation system, activities at the provider level, as well as various agents involved in the process of service delivery.
While most of PETS and QSDS have been conducted in the health and education sectors, a few have also covered other sectors, such as justice, Early Childhood Programs, water, agriculture, and rural roads.
In the past decade, about 40 PETS and QSDS have been implemented in about 30 countries. While a large majority of these surveys have been conducted in Africa, which currently accounts for 66 percent of the total number of studies, PETS/QSDS have been implemented in all six regions of the World Bank (East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa).
Nigeria is one of the few countries in the developing world that has systematically decentralized the delivery of basic services in health and education to locally elected governments and community-based organizations. Its health policy also has also been guided by the Bamako Initiative to encourage and sustain community participation in primary health care services.
This study uses an extensive survey of primary health facilities and local governments to analyze how local institutions - government and community-based - function in practice in delivering basic health services, and to draw lessons for improving public accountability.
The research was carried out in June-August 2002 in 30 local government areas of Lagos and Kogi states. Treasurers and primary health care coordinators in each of the 30 local governments, as well as managers and staff members in 252 health facilities were interviewed. Data from over 700 health workers was collected.
In addition to its analytical objectives, the conduct of this study was specifically designed to promote evidence-based policy dialogue in Nigeria by engaging the active participation of the government agency responsible for monitoring and supervising outcomes in primary health care service delivery - National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA). The agency was closely involved at every stage of the survey - from study design to its implementation and subsequent analysis.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- primary health care facilities;
- primary health care facilities employees;
- local government authorities (LGA).
v01 - Final, edited datasets.
Documented here are final, cleaned datasets prepared by the World Bank based on raw datasets provided by the study researchers.
The description of the difference between raw and edited datasets is taken from "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" (p.10):
"Each country set includes two data files. The first file, the "raw" data file, presents the data as collected and entered by the survey teams. While field teams do conduct very high-level coherence tests with regards to responses collected, the data contained therein has generally not been thoroughly checked for internal coherence across questions, variable outliers and other such involved data cleaning procedures.
Finally, independently of the values presented in the questionnaires, missing values are replaced across all "final" data sets to ensure consistency across countries. Following industry best practices, negative 3-digit integers are used in order to ensure there is no confusion between missing values and valid data points. "
"Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" is available in external resources.
The scope of the study includes:
- Health facility: basic information, building and infrastructure, services provided and payment for services, equipment and materials, medicines and vaccines, facility financing, institutions and governance, decision making, tracer and immediately notifiable diseases, general outputs - services provided and number of patients seen;
- Health workers: personal details, pay, training, time allocation and working conditions, home conditions, professional issues;
- Local Government Treasurer: general information, investments in essential services, budget information, recurrent account revenues, health expenditure;
- Primary Health Care (PHC) Coordinator: general information, PHC management, staff turnover of health personnel, environmental health activities, immunization records (polio, BCG vaccine immunizations).
Health Systems & Financing
Lagos and Kogi states
Primary health care facilities and local government authorities (LGA) in states of Lagos and Kogi.
Producers and sponsors
National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), Nigeria
A multi-stage sampling process was employed where first 15 local governments were randomly selected from each state; second, 100 facilities from Lagos and 152 facilities from Kogi were selected using a combination of random and purposive sampling from the list of all public primary health care facilities in the 30 selected local government authorities (LGAs) that was provided by the state governments; third, the field data collectors were instructed to interview all staff present at the health facility at the time of the visit, if the total number of staff in a facility were less than or equal to 10. In cases where the total number of staff were greater than 10, the field staff were instructed to randomly select 10 staff, but making sure that one staff in each of the major ten categories of primary health care workers was included in the sample.
Health facilities were selected through a combination of random and purposive sampling. First, all facilities were randomly selected from the available list for 30 LGAs. This process resulted in no facility being selected from a few LGAs. Between 1-3 facilities were then randomly selected from these LGAs, and an equal number of facilities were randomly dropped from overrepresented LGAs, defined as those where the proportion of selected facility per LGA is higher than the average proportion of selected facilities for all sampled LGAs. A list of replacement facilities was also randomly selected in the event of closure or non-functioning of any facility in the original sample. An inordinate amount of facilities were replaced in Kogi (27 in total), some due to inaccessibility given remote locations and hostile terrain, and some due to non-availability of any health staff. The local community volunteered in these cases that the reason there was no staff available was because of non-payment of salaries by the LGA.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Originally, researchers planned to include interviews of patients present at the health facilities to get users' perspective on public service delivery, but found that difficult to follow through given local capacity constraints in implementing a survey of this kind.
University of Ibadan
The following survey instruments are available:
- Health Facility Questionnaire: to be administered to the health facility manager, and to collect recorded data on inputs and outputs at the facility level;
- Staff Questionnaire: to be administered to individual health workers;
- Local Government Treasurer Questionnaire: to collect local government budgetary information;
- Primary Health Care Coordinator Questionnaire: to collect information on local government activities and policies in primary health care service delivery.
Detailed information about data editing procedures is available in "Data Cleaning Guide for PETS/QSDS Surveys" in external resources.
STATA cleaning do-files and data quality reports can also be found in external resources.
Public use file
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) of Nigeria, World Bank. PETS - QSDS in Health (PETS) 2002. Ref. NGA_2002_PETS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
DECDG, World Bank
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
v01 (August, 2011)