From 2002-2005, we collected data in Limpopo Province, at the Agincourt Demographic Surveillance Site, and in Khayelitsha, a township outside of Cape Town, through the auspices of Philani Nutrition and Development Project. Our work was funded by the National Institute on Aging under grant numbers R01 AG20275-01, P01 AG05842-14, and P30 AG024361.
We used integrated health and economic surveys in South Africa, to investigate the links between health status and economic status. Our survey instruments collected data on a range of traditional and non-traditional measures of well-being including income and consumption, measures of health status (including mental health), morbidity, crime, social connectedness, intra-household relationships, and direct hedonic measures of well-being.
In 2002, there was a cross-sectional study conducted in Agincourt. Random household selection was stratified by age-eligibility for the Old Age Pension and nationality. In 2004, there was a second cross-sectional study conducted in Agincourt. Random selection of households was stratified on the basis of both citizenship, (South African or Mozambican), and whether or not a death had occurred in the household.
The study in Khayelitsha was longitudinal. Part 1 of the first wave was conducted in 2002; part 2 of the first wave was conducted in 2003. In 2004, the households who had been interviewed in 2002 were re-interviewed (if they were willing and if they could be found), for part 1 of the second wave. In 2005, the households who were interviewed in 2003 were re-interviewed (if they were willing and if they could be found), for part 2 of the second wave.
For all of the studies, the methodology for conducting the surveys was the same. The questions varied some from year to year. The crosswalk (see table of contents) identifies these variations.
In 2002, there were separate adult modules for younger and older adults. In subsequent years, there was simply one questionnaire for all adults. 3
In study years 2003, 2004, and 2005, detailed questions in the household questionnaire about the impact of the most recent death in the household were asked of the most knowledgeable household member.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 1 - Public release data
Income and consumption, measures of health status (including mental health), morbidity, crime, social connectedness, intra-household relationships, and direct hedonic measures of well-being.
Khayelitsha 2002 and 2004
In 1994, Ingrid le Roux conducted a census of dwellings in Khayelitsha and surveyed a random sample of households from that census. We used the random sample of households surveyed in 1994 to draw a random sample of households to survey in 2002, with a follow up survey in 2004. In total we interviewed members of 203 households in 2002, and 165 households in 2004. The majority of interviews in 2002 were conducted between May and September. The majority in 2004 were conducted between March and July.
Khayelitsha 2003 and 2005
The second part of the Khayelitsha panel is a stratified random sample of 300 households. The township was divided into sampling blocks, and aerial photographs were used to count the number of dwellings in each block. 15 sampling blocks were then selected, with probability proportional to the number of dwellings in each block. A total of 20 households were then randomly sampled within each block. In 2005, 264 of the original 2003 households, and 7 split off households from the original 300 were interviewed. The majority of interviews in 2003 were conducted between March and September. The majority in 2005 were conducted between February and July.
Dates of Data Collection
Part 1 of the first wave
Part 2 of the first wave
Part 1 of the second wave
Part 2 of the second wave
Data Collection Mode
The most knowledgeable household member (khhm) was the initial person interviewed within the household. He or she would list all of the members of the household. This list of household members was then used as a guide for the entire interview process. The khhm first answered questions about the individual members of the household: age, gender, education, marital status, is that person?s partner in the household, is that person's parent in the household. Additionally, the khhm was asked about the source and amount of income of each household member.
Summary information was gathered from the khhm about the household members who had died and the household members who had moved. In study years starting in 2003, detailed questions were posed about the effect the most recent death had on the household.
Detailed questions were asked of the khhm about the living conditions: is there a toilet, is there running water, do you have a stove, a phone. Questions about household expenditures were asked: how is the money spent on health care, on children?s schooling expenses, etc.
In 2002, there were two separate adult questionnaires. One questionnaire was for adults whose ages fell between 18 and 54; the second questionnaire was for adults 55 years old and up. In subsequent study years there was one questionnaire for adults 18 and older. Every adult from the household, who was available and willing to, answered these questions. Questions about age, marital status, number of living children, and number of children who have died were included. Detailed questions were asked about their sources of income and their expenditures. For older adults, there were questions about pensions and grants, for mothers there were questions about childcare grants. Individuals described the type of jobs they held over the years, how much money they earned and how they spent that money. Detailed health questions were posed; both physical and mental health issues were covered. Physical measurements were taken of the individuals interviewed: their height, weight, waist size; blood pressure and pulse.
The parent or guardian of each child was questioned about the child. Questions included: birth weight, history of breastfeeding and health of the child. With the parent?s or guardian?s permission, the child?s height and weight were measured. Detailed information was recorded about the child's immunization history.
Professor Anne Case
University of Cape Town
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Anne Case, Princeton University, Khayelitsha Integrated Family Survey 2002 -2005 [computer files]. Anne Case, Princeton University [producer], 2002 2005. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2002 -2005; http://www.datafirst.uct.ac.za