This paper examines the impact of a decade of transition on the living standards of people living in seven of the poorest Republics of the former Soviet Union – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (known as the CIS-7). Data are drawn from a wide variety of sources, providing a comprehensive overview of household and individual welfare within the region. The picture painted is a bleak one, with rising income inequality, high levels of material poverty, and deterioration in health status and in access to health and education services. However, there are now the green shoots of economic recovery. Since 2000 all countries have experienced positive economic growth. The challenge for policy makers is to ensure that the benefits of this growth are shared equally amongst the population and that human capabilities are protected and strengthened.