There is an enormous scarcity of reliable data that measure inequality, especially in LDCs. This study uses anthropometric techniques and extends the inequality database for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to not less than 28 nations over six five-year periods from 1950 to 1980, and to some 200 regions within those countries. We test in depth many potential concerns about height inequality measures, and find no evidence for major inconsistencies. In a second step, we test the determinants of intraregional and interregional inequality The set of explanatory variables includes protein supply, cash cropping, industrial structure, mineral resources, distance to the country’s capital, urbanization, education, population density and ethnic fractionalization. Among a number of other factors, we find that cash cropping of a single product increase inequality, whereas diversified cash cropping has the opposite effect.