The study includes data and materials (do files, survey instruments) necessary for the replication of the paper: "Unilateral Facilitation Does Not Raise International Migration from the Philippines" by Emily A. Beam, David McKenzie, Dean Yang. According to the study, signifcant income gains from migrating from poorer to richer countries have motivated unilateral (source-country) policies facilitating labor emigration. However, their effectiveness is unknown. The investigators conducted a large-scale randomized experiment in the Philippines testing the impact of unilaterally facilitating international labor migration. Their most intensive treatment doubled the rate of job offers but had no identifable effect on international labor migration. Even the highest overseas job-search rate they induced (22%) falls far short of the share initially expressing interest in migrating (34%). They conclude that unilateral migration facilitation will at most induce a trickle, not a food, of additional emigration.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of analysis
- v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
42 barangays from six municipalities in Sorsogon Province
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
University of Michigan
University of Vermont
World Bank RSB
World Bank Gender Action Plan
Early in 2010, we randomly selected 42 barangays from six municipalities in Sorsogon Province in which to conduct the baseline survey. We collected a household roster from each barangay that included a list of households, and we used these to set barangay-specific target sample sizes proportional to population. We targeted approximately 5% of the total population from each barangay, or roughly 26%of households. We sorted households randomly and selected the first listed households to be our target. When a household could not be located or had no eligible members, we replaced it with the next household on the list.
From each household, interviewers screened the first member they met who had never worked abroad and was age 20-45. Subsequent to the baseline survey, we learned from recruitment agencies that most individuals over age 40 would not be eligible for overseas work, so we restricted our baseline sample to the 4,153 individuals age 20-40 we interviewed. Houses selected were typically far enough apart from each other that concerns about information spillovers are second order; to the extent that there were spillovers, our treatment estimates are lower bounds on the differential impact of more information. The passport assistance was only offered to the respondents themselves, and so it is not subject to such spillovers.
We obtained measures of whether the respondent migrated abroad for work from full, proxy, or log surveys for 4,089 respondents, or 98.5% of our sample. Of those, 73% were surveys with the respondents themselves, 20% were proxy surveys, and 7% were log surveys. Excluding the log surveys, we have a 91% response rate for their full set of job search and migration outcome variables.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Beam, E., D. McKenzie and D. Yang (2016) Unilateral Facilitation Does Not Raise International Labor Migration from the Philippines, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 64(2): 323-68