Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between nations and across subnational boundaries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, infrastructure). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and key resources, which need to be in place for students to learn.
Tanzania Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented between May and September 2014 by Research in Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) in close coordination with the World Bank SDI team. Four hundred primary schools were visited, 2,197 standard three, four, and five teachers were assessed on English, mathematics, and pedagogy, 3,692 teachers of all grades have been followed for absence rate. Also, although learning outcomes are not part of the indicators, 4,041 standard four pupils have been assessed on language (English/Kiswahili), mathematics, and non-verbal reasoning. It is crucial that the indicators be correlated with pupil learning outcome because the SDI is geared towards capturing the drivers of learning outcomes at the school level.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v01, harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Professor Samwel Wangwe
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Department for International Development
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
A multi-stage clustered sampling strategy was adopted for the Tanzania SDI Education Survey. The first stage cluster selection was carried out independently within each explicit stratum. The primary cluster was the council. Schools were selected at the second stage, and teacher and standard four pupils - at the third stage.
The sampling frame for the 2014 Tanzania Education SDI was based on the 2012 EMIS data provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. It was decided that within each stratum, except Dar es Salaam, 25 councils would be chosen with probability proportional to size.
The schools were chosen using probability proportional to size (PPS), where size was the number of standard two pupils as provided by the 2012 EMIS database. As for the selection of the cluster, the use of PPS implied that each standard four pupil within a stratum had an equal probability for her school to be selected.
Finally, within each school, up to 10 standard four pupils and 10 teachers were selected. Pupils were randomly selected among the standard four pupil body, whereas for teachers, there were two different procedures for measuring absence rate and assessing knowledge. For absence rate, 10 teachers were randomly selected from the teachers' roster and the whereabouts of those teachers was ascertained in a return surprise visit. For the knowledge assessment, however, all teachers who were currently teaching in primary four or taught primary three the previous school year were included in the sample. Then a random number of teachers in upper grades were included to top up the sample.
Detailed information on the sampling procedure is available in the attached report.
Deviations from sample design
To be representative of the population of interest, sample estimates from the 2014 Tanzania SDI had to be properly weighted, using a sampling weight, or expansion factor. Note that different weights needed to be applied depending on the relevant level for the variable, which could be the school, teacher, or pupil. The basic weight for each entity was equal to the inverse of its probability of selection, which was computed by multiplying the probabilities of selection at each sampling stage. All the weights were computed and included in the dataset.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the head teacher to collect information about school finances (not included in the harmonized data)
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
Research in Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Data entry was done using CSPro; quality control was performed in Stata.
The harmonized, anonymized datasets are available as public use files.
Researchers who feel that they need non-anonymized data should contact firstname.lastname@example.org with a statement of research objectives and a rationale for why they require such data. That will start the Research Use File discussion.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Waly Wane, The World Bank. Tanzania Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. TZA_2014_SDI-E_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.