Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data
This survey is part of the Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) project, an initiative of the World Bank, the African Economic Research Consortium, and the African Development Bank. Started in 2012, SDI tracks performance and quality of service delivery in primary schools and frontline health facilities across Africa. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time, and aim to enhance active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. Ultimately, the goal of the program is to help policymakers, citizens, service providers, donors, and other stakeholders enhance the quality of services and improve development outcomes.
The pilot surveys were conducted in Tanzania and Senegal in 2010. In 2012-2013, surveys were conducted in Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Togo and Uganda; in 2014-2016, in Madagascar, Tanzania and Niger. The surveys are repeated every two years.
SDI initiative is a unique 10-year program and the World Bank is the implementing partner for the first five years.
The data distributed here has been harmonized to a common standard to facilitate comparisons across countries and time. The data also has been anonymized to preserve confidentiality of respondents. The harmonization and anonymization work is done by the World Bank's SDI team.
SDI surveys are documented in the Microdata Library as Service Delivery Indicators Health Surveys and Service Delivery Indicators Education Surveys.
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between nations and across subnational boundaries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, infrastructure). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and key resources, which need to be in place for students to learn.
Tanzania Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented between May and September 2014 by Research in Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) in close coordination with the World Bank SDI team. Four hundred primary schools were visited, 2,197 standard three, four, and five teachers were assessed on English, mathematics, and pedagogy, 3,692 teachers of all grades have been followed for absence rate. Also, although learning outcomes are not part of the indicators, 4,041 standard four pupils have been assessed on language (English/Kiswahili), mathematics, and non-verbal reasoning. It is crucial that the indicators be correlated with pupil learning outcome because the SDI is geared towards capturing the drivers of learning outcomes at the school level.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01, harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution
Education Service Delivery Indicators are:
1) Teacher Effort:
- School absence rate
- Classroom absence rate
- Time spent teaching per day
2) Teacher Knowledge and Ability:
- Minimum knowledge in mathematics
- Minimum knowledge in English
- Minimum knowledge in pedagogy
3) Availability of Inputs:
- Minimum infrastructure availability
- Minimum equipment availability
- Share of pupils with textbooks
- Observed pupil-teacher ratio
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Professor Samwel Wangwe
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Department for International Development
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
A multi-stage clustered sampling strategy was adopted for the Tanzania SDI Education Survey. The first stage cluster selection was carried out independently within each explicit stratum. The primary cluster was the council. Schools were selected at the second stage, and teacher and standard four pupils - at the third stage.
The sampling frame for the 2014 Tanzania Education SDI was based on the 2012 EMIS data provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. It was decided that within each stratum, except Dar es Salaam, 25 councils would be chosen with probability proportional to size.
The schools were chosen using probability proportional to size (PPS), where size was the number of standard two pupils as provided by the 2012 EMIS database. As for the selection of the cluster, the use of PPS implied that each standard four pupil within a stratum had an equal probability for her school to be selected.
Finally, within each school, up to 10 standard four pupils and 10 teachers were selected. Pupils were randomly selected among the standard four pupil body, whereas for teachers, there were two different procedures for measuring absence rate and assessing knowledge. For absence rate, 10 teachers were randomly selected from the teachers' roster and the whereabouts of those teachers was ascertained in a return surprise visit. For the knowledge assessment, however, all teachers who were currently teaching in primary four or taught primary three the previous school year were included in the sample. Then a random number of teachers in upper grades were included to top up the sample.
Detailed information on the sampling procedure is available in the attached report.
Deviations from the Sample Design
To be representative of the population of interest, sample estimates from the 2014 Tanzania SDI had to be properly weighted, using a sampling weight, or expansion factor. Note that different weights needed to be applied depending on the relevant level for the variable, which could be the school, teacher, or pupil. The basic weight for each entity was equal to the inverse of its probability of selection, which was computed by multiplying the probabilities of selection at each sampling stage. All the weights were computed and included in the dataset.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Tanzania Education SDI, unlike all other SDI countries, only reports on public schools. This is due to the near nonexistence of private schools at the primary level.
Research in Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the head teacher to collect information about school finances (not included in the harmonized data)
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
Data entry was done using CSPro; quality control was performed in Stata.
The harmonized, anonymized datasets are available as public use files.
Researchers who feel that they need non-anonymized data should contact email@example.com with a statement of research objectives and a rationale for why they require such data. That will start the Research Use File discussion.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Waly Wane, The World Bank. Tanzania Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2014 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. TZA_2014_SDI-E_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
v01 (December 2016)