Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey 2013 - Harmonized Public Use Data
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
This survey is part of the Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) project, an initiative of the World Bank, the African Economic Research Consortium, and the African Development Bank. Started in 2012, SDI tracks performance and quality of service delivery in primary schools and frontline health facilities across Africa. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time, and aim to enhance active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. Ultimately, the goal of the program is to help policymakers, citizens, service providers, donors, and other stakeholders enhance the quality of services and improve development outcomes.
The pilot surveys were conducted in Tanzania and Senegal in 2010. In 2012-2013, surveys were conducted in Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Togo and Uganda; in 2014-2016, in Madagascar, Tanzania and Niger. The surveys are repeated every two years.
SDI initiative is a unique 10-year program and the World Bank is the implementing partner for the first five years.
The data distributed here has been harmonized to a common standard to facilitate comparisons across countries and time. The data also has been anonymized to preserve confidentiality of respondents. The harmonization and anonymization work is done by the World Bank's SDI team.
SDI surveys are documented in the Microdata Library as Service Delivery Indicators Health Surveys and Service Delivery Indicators Education Surveys.
The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) are a set of health and education indicators that examine the effort and ability of staff and the availability of key inputs and resources that contribute to a functioning school or health facility. The indicators are standardized allowing comparison between nations and across subnational boundaries over time.
The Education SDIs include teacher effort, teacher knowledge and ability, and the availability of key inputs (for example, textbooks, basic teaching equipment, infrastructure). The indicators provide a snapshot of the learning environment and key resources, which need to be in place for students to learn.
Togo Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey was implemented in May-June 2013 by Togo's Ministry of Education’s National Evaluation Commission (Commission nationale d’évaluation; CNE) in close coordination with the World Bank SDI team. Data collection and processing was carried out by a team of consultants managed by TIMS Services. Information was collected from 200 primary schools, 1,141 teachers, and 1,938 grade four students.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Schools, teachers and students
-v02. Harmonized and anonymized data for public distribution.
Compared to v01, v02 changes include:
1. Data reorganized by the unit of analysis (school, teacher, pupil).
2. New round of data cleaning, including renaming and relabeling variables, fixing incorrect category values, fixing incorrect value labels, adding variables from original datasets absent in the previous version, converting variables into proper variable type, deleting analysis/supervision variables, fixing and recategorizing missing observations, reordering variables to reflect instrument structure.
3. New round of data harmonization and anonymization. For more details on the harmonization and anonymization process, please refer to the Harmonization Protocol, Harmonized Variables Codebooks, and Anonymization Protocol included as part of this collection’s documentation.
Education Service Delivery Indicators are:
1) Teacher Effort:
- School absence rate
- Classroom absence rate
- Time spent teaching per day
2) Teacher Knowledge and Ability:
- Minimum knowledge in mathematics
- Minimum knowledge in English
- Minimum knowledge in pedagogy
3) Availability of Inputs:
- Minimum infrastructure availability
- Minimum equipment availability
- Share of pupils with textbooks
- Observed pupil-teacher ratio
All primary schools
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
The World Bank
Global Partnership for Education
Seydou Garba Hamidou
Educational and Institution Strengthening Project
Provided technical inputs and support during the preparation and data collection phases.
The SDI indicators draw information from a stratified random sample of 200 schools, comprised of 148 public, 28 faith‐based, and 24 private non‐denominational schools. This sample provides a representative snapshot of the learning environment in both public and private schools. The details on the sampling procedure are in Annex 1 of the SDI Report under the Resources tab. The education work was implemented as part of the ongoing work with the Government of Togo on improving educational quality and development of the Ministry of Education’s capacity to produce, analyze, and use statistical information for policy formulation and evaluation. The standard SDI survey instruments were adapted to the Togolese context through a participatory process involving technical discussions, training, and piloting with the Ministry of Education’s National (Education) Evaluation Commission (Commission nationale d’évaluation; CNE).
The education survey was also coordinated with the Global Partnership for Education
(GPE) project’s PASEC‐inspired survey. A single team that undertook both surveys went to each school and the supervisors were from the CNE. The survey was implemented by the CNE with support and supervision from the World Bank’s Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) team.
The sample of schools used in the SDI survey was the same as the PASEC‐inspired survey. The sample chosen closely reflects the distribution of school usage across facility types and poverty status. In total, 200 primary schools, of which 74 percent were public schools and the remaining 26 percent either private for‐profit or private not‐for‐profit schools. The survey assessed the knowledge of 831 primary school teachers, surveyed 1,141 teachers as part of the study of the absence rate, and observed 192 grade four lessons. In addition, learning outcomes were measured for 1,938 grade four pupils. Survey implementation was preceded by extensive consultation with Government and key stakeholders on survey design, sampling, and adaptation of survey instruments. Pre‐testing of the survey instruments, training of field staff, and field‐work took place in 2013.
The weights are provided in the "tgo_2013_edu_weights" dataset.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The SDI Education Survey Questionnaire consists of six modules:
Module 1: School Information - Administered to the head of the school to collect information about school type, facilities, school governance, pupil numbers, and school hours. Includes direct observations of school infrastructure by enumerators.
Module 2a: Teacher Absence and Information - Administered to head teacher and individual teachers to obtain a list of all school teachers, to measure teacher absence and to collect information about teacher characteristics.
Module 2b: Teacher Absence and Information - Unannounced visit to the school to assess absence rate.
Module 3: School Finances - Administered to the headteacher (or Director, in the case of Togo) to collect information on school finances (this data is not included with the dissemination package).
Module 4: Classroom Observation - An observation module to assess teaching activities and classroom conditions.
Module 5: Pupil Assessment - A test of pupils to have a measure of pupil learning outcomes in mathematics and language in grade four.
Module 6: Teacher Assessment - A test of teachers covering mathematics and language subject knowledge and teaching skills.
The World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Christophe Rockmore, World Bank Group. Togo Service Delivery Indicators Education Survey (SDI-E) 2013 - Harmonized Public Use Data, Ref. TGO_2013_SDI-E_v01_M_. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (March 2021)