Uttar Pradesh and Bihar Survey of Living Conditions 1997-1998
A two-part study of rural poverty was carried out in 1997-98 in south and eastern Uttar Pradesh and north and central Bihar. This study utilized both qualitative methods - rapid rural appraisal (RRA) & participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methodologies, and semi-structured interviews - as well as quantitative methods drawing on data collected from household and community surveys modelled after the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys.
The data being distributed are from the quantitative component of the study, field work for which was carried out between December 1997 and March 1998. Data were collected through household and village-level questionnaires in 120 villages drawn from a sample of 25 districts in UP and Bihar states; a total of 2,250 households were interviewed during the course of the survey (more details on distribution of the sample are provided in the sampling section of this note). Of the sample of 120 villages where the household and village surveys were conducted, 30 had been visited in the earlier qualitative component of the study, while the remaining 90 were drawn at random from the sample districts.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The survey covered south and eastern Uttar Pradesh and north and central Bihar.
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the two states selected for the study, are divided into 8 statistical regions: 5 in Uttar Pradesh (Himalayan, Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern) and 3 in Bihar(Southern, Northern, and Central).
The universe for the study comprised 4 statistical regions: 2 in Uttar Pradesh (Eastern and Southern), and 2 in Bihar (Northern and Central). Altogether, there were 55 districts in the area covered by the study: 24 districts in the 2 statistical regions in Uttar Pradesh, and 31 districts in the 2 statistical regions covered in Bihar.
In the first phase of the project, qualitative field work was carried out in 30 villages: 3 villages each from 4 districts in Bihar (Mungher, Jehanabad, Saharsa, and Vaishali), and 6 villages each from 3 districts in Uttar Pradesh (Banda, Allahabad, and Gorakhpur).
The sampling strategy followed for the quantitative study basically involved dividing the sample population into four main strata:
1) districts that were covered in the qualitative study in Bihar (i.e. 4 districts)
2) districts that were covered in the qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh (i.e. 3 districts)
3) remaining districts in the 2 selected regions of Bihar (i.e. 27 districts)
4) remaining districts in the 2 selected regions of Uttar Pradesh (i.e. 21 districts)
All 12 villages in Stratum 1 that were covered in the qualitative study were included in the sample. Similarly, all 18 villages in Stratum 2 that were covered in the qualitative study were included in the sample. In each of these 30 villages, 30 households each were picked at random for the survey.
In stratums 3 and 4, 45 villages each were selected for the survey. A two-step procedure was used to select villages in these two strata: first, 9 districts were selected in each stratum using PPS. In each of the 9 districts, 5 villages were then selected at the second stage, again using PPS. In each of these 90 villages altogether, 15 households each were selected for the survey.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
The household questionnaire comprised ten main sections, and collected information on:
SECTION 1. HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION
This section has three main purposes. The first purpose is to identify all persons who are members of the household. The second is to provide basic demographic information (i.e. age, sex, marital status) for each person. The third is to collect information on the main sources of income for the household, as well as identify the main breadwinner in the household. Section 1 is divided into two parts: Part A: Household Roster and Part B: Sources of Livelihood.
SECTION 2. ACTIVITIES
This section gathers information on economic activities undertaken by members of the household. Detailed questions are included on activities in the wage sectors -- casual wage employment, long-term wage employment in agriculture, and salaried employment. Additional information is also collected on non-farm self employment --activities in both large and very small business, trade, and manufacturing enterprises.
SECTION 3. HOUSING AND ACCESS TO FACILITIES
This section collects information in three areas: the type of dwelling occupied by the household, access to basic services (water, sanitation, and electricity), and access to various facilities providing services
SECTION 4. EDUCATION
This section collects information on the following:
(i) use of child development (for example, anganwadi/balwadi) and early childhood education programs for children aged 0-6 years;
(ii) formal schooling for children and young adults (6 to 19 years old) and expenses on education incurred during the past 12 months for those currently in school;
Literacy of household members - i.e. which persons in the household can read and write - and educational attainment for each person - i.e. the highest level of schooling completed - are covered in the roster.
SECTION 5. HEALTH
This section gathers information on the following:
(a) Illness and injuries among all household members in the past year which have made it difficult for the person to perform their normal activities for at least a week (i.e. working, attending school, etc.)
(b) Immunizations received since birth by children aged 5 years or less.
(c) Incidence of diarrhea during the past 30 days for all children aged 5 years or less.
SECTION 6. MARRIAGE AND MATERNITY HISTORY
This section collects information on:
(a) maternity history from female household members aged 15 - 45 years, and
(b) pre-natal and post-natal care from women who had a child in the last three years, and
(c) perceptions amongst women about their role as members of the household and community.
SECTION 7. FOOD EXPENSES AND HOME PRODUCTION
This section collects information on the household's total expenditure on food of various types, including an estimate of the value of home produced or home-grown food consumed by the household. It also is used to estimate food consumed that was received as payment in-kind, i.e. as remuneration for work done on someone else's farm, as gifts, or as presents from relatives and/or friends. In addition, respondents are asked about the ownership of household durable stocks.
SECTION 8. VULNERABILITY
This section collects information on the following:
(i) food availability throughout the year and use of the Public Distribution System (PDS - Fair price shops);
(ii) loans outstanding or contracted over the past 12 months;
(iii) receipts from safety net programs.
SECTION 9. FARMING AND LIVESTOCK
The purpose of this section is to collect information on the household's agricultural assets as well as some data on farming practices followed by the household.
Landholding: land owned, land operated, and irrigation
Crop production and use of fertilizer
Ownership of livestock
Ownership of farming assets
SECTION 10. REMITTANCES AND TRANSFERS RECEIVED
This section aims to capture the flow of remittances and transfers into the household.
The village questionnaire comprised seven sections covering (1) village characteristics, including size, caste composition and political structure, (2) access to facilities and services, (3)agriculture, irrigation and forestry, (4) employment and migration, (5) anti-poverty programs and organizations, and (6) changes over time, and (7) visits to facilities including the angawadi center, primary schools, health posts, and the PDS fair price shop.
In receiving these data it is recognized that the data are supplied for use within my organization, and you agree to the following stipulations as conditions for the use of the data:
1. The data are supplied solely for the use described in this form and will not be made available to other organizations or individuals. Other organizations or individuals may request the data directly.
2. Three copies of all publications, conference papers, or other research reports based entirely or in part upon the requested data will be supplied to:
The World Bank
Development Economics Research Group
LSMS Database Administrator
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433, USA
tel: (202) 473-9041
fax: (202) 522-1153
3. The researcher will refer to the 1997-98 India - Uttar Pradesh and Bihar Survey of Living Conditions as the source of the information in all publications, conference papers, and manuscripts. At the same time, the World Bank is not responsable for the estimations reported by the analyst(s).
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Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.