The European Social Survey (ESS) is an academically driven cross-national survey that has been conducted across Europe since its establishment in 2001. Every two years, face-to-face interviews are conducted with newly selected, cross-sectional samples. The survey measures the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour patterns of diverse populations in more than thirty nations.
So far, eight rounds of ESS have been conducted.
The European Social Survey (ESS) is an academically-driven multi-country survey, which has been administered in over 30 countries to date. Its three aims are, firstly – to monitor and interpret changing public attitudes and values within Europe and to investigate how they interact with Europe's changing institutions, secondly - to advance and consolidate improved methods of cross-national survey measurement in Europe and beyond, and thirdly - to develop a series of European social indicators, including attitudinal indicators.
In the eighth round, the survey covers 23 countries and employs the most rigorous methodologies. From Round 7 it is funded by the Members, Observers and Guests of ESS European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC) who represent national governments. Participating countries directly fund the central coordination costs of the ESS ERIC, as well the costs of fieldwork and national coordination in their own country.
The survey involves strict random probability sampling, a minimum target response rate of 70% and rigorous translation protocols. The hour-long face-to-face interview includes questions on a variety of core topics repeated from previous rounds of the survey and also two modules developed for Round 8 covering Public Attitudes to Climate Change, Energy Security, and Energy Preferences and Welfare Attitudes in a Changing Europe (the latter is a partial repeat of a module from Round 4).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
ESS8 edition 1.0 (published 31.10.17):
Includes data from Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom.
PSPWGHT: Post-stratification weights will be added in a later release in the spring of 2018.
The data is available to users without restrictions, for not-for-profit purposes. In accordance with data protection regulations in participating countries, only anonymous data is available.
The dataset can be downloaded here after a short registration: http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/download.html?file=ESS8e01&y=2016
The scope of the study includes:
- social trust
- political interest and participation
- socio-political orientations
- social exclusion
- national, ethnic and religious allegiances
- climate change, energy security and energy preferences
- human values
- demographics and socioeconomics
All persons aged 15 and over resident within private households, regardless of their nationality, citizenship, language or legal status, in the following participating countries:
1) European Union countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
2) Non-European Union countries: Iceland, Israel, Norway, Russian Federation, Switzerland
Producers and sponsors
ESS European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC)
Austria - Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy
Austria - Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumber Protection
Belgium - FWO (Flanders) and FNRS (Wallonia)
Czech Republic - Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports
Estonia - Ministry of Education and Research
Finland - Academy of Finland
France - Large National Research Infrastructure PROGEDO and National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)
Germany - Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry of Education and Research)
Iceland - RANNÍS (Rannsóknamiðstöð Íslands), Mennta- og Menningarmálaráðuneytið, Velferðarráðuneytið, Háskóli Íslands
Ireland - Irish Research Council
Israel - The Council for Higher Education (CHE), The Planning and Budgeting Committee (PBC)
Netherlands - The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
Norway - The Research Council of Norway
Poland - The Ministry of Science and Higher Education
Russian Federation - Russian Humanitarian Scientic Fund (RGNF)
Slovenia - Slovenian Research Agency, Ministry of Education, Science and Sport
Sweden - Vetenskapsrådet (The Swedish Research Council)
Switzerland - SNFS (Swiss National Science Foundation)
United Kingdom - Economic and Social Research Council
The purpose of the design weights (DWEIGHT) is to correct for unequal probabilities for selection due to the sampling design used. In general design weights were computed for each country as follows.
1.w = 1/(PROB1*...*PROBk) is a nx1 vector of weights ; k depends on the number of stages of the sampling design.
2. All weights were rescaled in a way that the sum of the final weights equals n, i.e. Rescaled weights = n*w/sum(w).
POPULATION SIZE WEIGHTS:
The Population size weight (PWEIGHT) corrects for population size when combining two or more country's data, and is calculated as PWEIGHT=[Population aged 15 years and over]/[(Net sample in data file)*10 000]
Source population figures: Eurostat. For Israel and Russian Federation ESS8 Appendix A5 Population Statistics.
In the ESS, data have to be collected via face-to-face interviews (preferably CAPI) in all participating countries. In each country, the national funding agency appoints a National Coordinator and a survey organisation to implement the survey according to common ESS specifications.
The core scientific team responsible for ESS implementation consisted of:
Rory Fitzgerald (PI and Director, ESS ERIC), Eric Harrison, Lorna Ryan, Ana Villar, Sarah Butt, Salima Douhou, Lizzy Winstone, Virginia Ros, Luca Salini and Elena Sommer: ESS ERIC Headquarters at City, University of London, UK. Geert Loosveldt, Koen Beullens and Katrijn Denies: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium. Bjørn Henrichsen, Knut Kalgraff Skjåk, and Kirstine Kolsrud: NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway. Angelika Scheuer, Achim Koch, Verena Halbherr, Brita Dorer, Stefan Zins and Roberto Briceño-Rosas: GESIS, Germany. Wiebke Weber, Diana Zavala Rojas, Melanie Revilla and Anna de Castellarnau: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain. Ineke Stoop, Joost Kappelhof and Sander Steijn: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP), Netherlands. Brina Malnar, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Peter Lynn, University of Essex, United Kingdom.
The dates for data collection in each of the countries are the following:
Field work period: Austria - 19.09.16 - 28.12.16
Field work period: Belgium - 14.09.16 - 31.01.17
Field work period: Czech Republic - 24.10.16 - 19.12.16
Field work period: Estonia - 01.10.16 - 31.01.17
Field work period: Finland - 15.09.16 - 08.03.17
Field work period: France - 10.11.2016 - 11.03.2017
Field work period: Germany - 23.08.16 - 26.03.17
Field work period: Iceland - 02.11.16 - 08.06.16
Field work period: Ireland - 25.11.16 - 08.05.17
Field work period: Israel - 10.09.16 - 08.02.17
Field work period: Netherlands - 01.09.16 - 31.01.17
Field work period: Norway - 22.08.16 - 17.01.17
Field work period: Poland - 07.11.16 - 22.02.17
Field work period: Russian Federation - 03.01.17 - 19.03.17
Field work period: Slovenia - 21.09.16 - 11.01.16
Field work period: Sweden - 26.08.16 - 10.02.17
Field work period: Switzerland - 01.09.16-02.03.17
Field work period: United Kingdom - 01.09.16 - 20.03.17
Austria - IFES Institut für empirische Sozialforschung
Citation of data:
European Social Survey Round 8 Data (2016). Data file edition 1.0. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway - Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC
Citation of documentation:
European Social Survey (2016): ESS8 - 2016 Documentation Report. Edition 1.0. Bergen, European Social Survey Data Archive, NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data for ESS ERIC
To ensure that such source attributions are captured for social science bibliographic utilities, citations must appear in the footnotes or in the reference section of publications.
Location of Data Collection
NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data
Archive where study is originally stored
ESS European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The ESS ERIC, Core Scientific Team (CST) and the producers bear no responsibility for the uses of the ESS data, or for interpretations or inferences based on these uses. The ESS ERIC, CST and the producers accept no liability for indirect, consequential or incidental damages or losses arising from use of the data collection, or from the unavailability of, or break in access to the service for whatever reason.
DDI Document ID
NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data
Norway's Ministry of Education and Research
Documentation and archiving of the study
Development Data Group
Metadata distribution in the World Bank Microdata Catalog and IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
- v01 (October 2017)
The metadata was documented by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. It was downloaded on November 6, 2017 from http://nesstar.ess.nsd.uib.no/webview/index.jsp?v=2&submode=abstract&study=http%3A%2F%2F18.104.22.168%3A80%2Fobj%2FfStudy%2FESS8e01.0&mode=documentation&top=yes by the World Bank Microdata Library documentation team. The dataset and documents were downloaded on November 6, 2017 from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/data/download.html?r=8
- v02 (November 2017)
Modifications in the study ID and DDI ID were done by the World Bank Microdata Library documentation team to match the standard used by the library and the IHSN Survey Catalog. Some metadata fields were edited, and additional metadata fields were added.