Starting June 1999, after the intervention of NATO in the conflict between Kosovo and Serbia (FRY), the United Nations provided interim administration for the province. The consequences of the conflict on the living standards of the population were severe, with the collapse of the industrial sector, the paralysis of agriculture, and extensive damage to private housing, education and health facilities and other infrastructure. In addition, the conflict brought massive population displacement both within Kosovo and abroad.
A year later, Kosovo was in a process of transition from emergency relief to long-term economic development. The purpose of the survey was to provide crucial information for policy and program design for use by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), international donors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the Kosovar community at large for poverty alleviation and inequality reduction.
During the same period, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was planning an agriculture and livestock survey. It was decided to join both surveys, in order to pool resources and provide better assistance to the newly re-formed Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK) and to take into account the extensive Kosovar peasant household economy. Therefore the agriculture and food aid modules are more developed than those of a standard LSMS survey.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) also was interested in information related to labor force and employment. They had run a socio-demographic and reproductive health survey with the United Nations Population Fund, covering approximately 10,000 households at the end of 1999. IOM provided the urban sampling frame for the present survey.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Domains: Urban/rural; Area of Responsibility (American, British, French, German, Italian); Serbian minority
Unit of analysis
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The sample design used in the Kosovo LSMS 2000 had to contend with the fact that the last census, conducted in 1991, was rendered obsolete by the boycott of the Albanian population and by the massive displacements since March 1998.
A Housing Damage Assessment Survey (HDAS) was conducted in February 1999 and updated in June 1999 by the International Management Group (IMG) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the rural areas. The survey covered 95 percent of the Albanian rural areas and provided the basis for the rural sampling frame, after updating. The updating and household listings in selected villages were conducted by FAO.
Since the HDAS did not cover Serbian villages, a quick counting4 of housing units was performed in these villages, following a procedure similar to the one in the urban areas. In urban areas, the original plan was to use the information from the on-going individual
voters’ registration conducted by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Since the registration was limited to individuals above 16 years old, it was then decided to conduct a quick counting of households in the 22 urban areas. The quick counting and subsequent listing of households was performed by IOM, under the supervision of the sampling expert hired by the World Bank.
UNMIK divided Kosovo into 5 areas of responsibility (AR), roughly equivalent to the former regions (American – Southeast, British – East including Pristina, French – North, German-South, Italian – West). The rural frame used the IMG/UNHCR Housing Damage Assessment Survey. It was updated with the collaboration of FAO and provided much better information on which to build the sample for the survey. Aerial pictures of the villages selected in the survey were used to help identifying housing units. Only one household was interviewed in each housing unit. For the Serbian villages, counting households and making listings had to be elaborated by the survey team.
In urban areas, IOM contracted the quick counting to SOK in the Albanian cities and to firms in the Serb areas. These firms updated existing lists, or performed some quick counting. Using the updated information IOM created enumeration areas of size 150-200 housing units. Based on this quick counting, a full listing took place in all the selected EAs and 12 households were randomly selected. Given safety issues and quality problems discovered at the enumeration stage, the Serb urban listings were revised after the end of the survey, by the Serb survey team, who had performed the rural listings.
The sample was preset at 2,880 households in order to allow analyses in the following breakdowns: (a) Kosovo as a whole; (b) by area of responsibility, (c) by urban/rural locations. In addition, the survey data can be used to derive separate estimates for the Serbian minority.
In the rural area, 30 Albanian villages were randomly selected in each AR and a listing of all households in the village was established.5 In each village, 12 households were then randomly selected (8 for interviewing and 4 reserve households). Similarly, 30 urban enumeration areas (between 150 and 200 households lie in each urban EA) were randomly selected in the Albanian part of each AR. Twelve households were then selected in each EA. In the rural area, 30 Serb villages were selected from the three municipalities in the northern part of Kosovo, the enclaves and the municipality of Strepce. Thirty urban EA were selected in the same region. In each village and urban area, 12 households were then randomly selected.
In addition to the explicit stratification of the areas of responsibility and the ethnic composition in each rural and urban category, an implicit stratification of geographic ordering in a serpentine method in the villages and urban enumeration areas was followed. In order to be able to provide estimates for the separate domains described above, it was recommended that 240 households be interviewed in each domain. We had very little prior knowledge of response rates. In the rural villages, it was decided to select 12 households and identify 4 of them as “reserve households”. These reserve households were to be used only in specific cases, described at length to the logistics person/driver of the interviewing team. The final sample size was 1,200 rural and urban Albanian households and 240 rural and urban Serb households, for a total sample size of 2,880 households.
Households from the original sample selection which could not be interviewed were replaced by reserve households to reach the final sample size. The non-response rate among households originally selected for inclusion in the sample in rural Albanian areas was 11.8 percent and 20.8 percent in urban Albanian areas. These rates in the Serbian areas were 14.2 percent among rural households and 39.2 percent among urban households.
In the rural Albanian areas, non-response came mostly from households having moved outside of the village. A few refusals were due to the fact that households were in mourning or celebrating other religious occasions (wedding, baptisms, circumcisions, etc…), or the household head was a women alone. There were only 20 actual refusals of the originally selected households, only 2 percent of the 1,200 households originally contacted.
In the Serbian rural areas, half of the non-responses were due to households having traveled to Serbia for visits (holidays, health care issues, indefinite travel….). Other reasons included: interviewer’s safety (houses too isolated) and households refusing to respond in the absence of the head. There were only 5 such cases, again only 2 percent of the 240 households originally contacted. In the urban areas, 10 percent of the non-responses were linked to listings problems (non-existent addresses). Another 75 percent came from households having moved (temporarily or indefinitely) and/or renting their dwelling to KFOR and international staff. The remaining reasons included refusals for security and illness reasons. There were only 6 such cases, again close to 2 percent of the 240 households originally contacted.
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Two questionnaires were used to collect the information: a household questionnaire and a community questionnaire. No anthropometric information was collected as malnutrition problems, facing Kosovar children and women, would not be detected by these procedures.
Since FAO and SOK were conducting a price survey in 7 cities of Kosovo, on a monthly basis, it was decided to not include a separate price questionnaire but use the data from the FAO-SOK price survey. The Kosovo LSMS 2000 collected information using a household questionnaire, which was based in part on the standard LSMS questionnaire developed in Grosh and Glewwe (2000).
The standard questionnaire was adapted to the specifics of the Kosovar environment and special modules about displacement, food aid and social protection were added. Individual modules were administered as much as possible to most informed respondents. Box 1 contains a summary of the content of the questionnaire.
The community questionnaire was designed to collect information on community-level infrastructure, with a special emphasis on school and health facilities as well as displaced persons issues. Box 2 contains a summary of the content of the community questionnaire. [Note: Community is defined as the Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) of the survey. In rural areas, it generally encompasses villages unless these are less than 50 households (in which case, they were grouped with a neighboring village) or more than 200 households (in which case, they were broken-up in PSUs of 50-200 households). In urban areas, community is defined as the Enumeration Area but includes the larger city when referring to secondary school and university, hospitals and factories.]
Three Albanian and one Serb office editors received the questionnaires each day, did the required office coding (industry codes) and checked for completion errors and obvious mistakes. If corrections were necessary, the questionnaires were returned to the enumerators, for revisions and/or return to the household.
The data entry program was designed using CSPro, a data entry package developed by the US Census Bureau. This software allows programs to be developed to perform three types of data checks: (a) range checks, (b) intra-record checks to verify inconsistencies inside a module, and (c) inter-records checks to determine inconsistencies between different modules of the questionnaire. The data entry program was designed by a consultant and field checked and translated into Albanian, with the help of the local data entry supervisor.
The data were key entered at SOK headquarters, in a semi-concurrent fashion, by eight data entry operators. In addition, nine SOK staff performed a double-data entry of a part of the data. This was designed as an additional quality check as well as on-the-job training for the SOK data entry operators.
Data entry for the household survey was completed by December 31, 2000. A 3-day delay was caught-up with during the week break, preceding the October 28 elections. Data from the Serbian questionnaires were also key entered at SOK headquarters since all but one data entry staff could read Serbian and the format of the questionnaire stayed identical. At the end of the data entry, some errors were found in the CS-Pro program and some sections were reentered.
Data entry for the community questionnaire was completed on January 17.
World Bank LSMS
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Statistical Office of Kosovo
Zenel Salihu N. 4
tel: 381 38 549 094 ext. 111
fax: 381548 1887
The World Bank
Development Economics Research Group
LSMS Database Administrator
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State Institute of Statistics of Prime Ministry of Turkey. Kosovo Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2000, Ref. KSV_2000_LSMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
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