Over the past 12 months, what work did you do?
- Code of activity
Own farm activities
Casual labour (farm and non-farm)
Long-term agricultural employee
Personal (jajmani) services
Collection / foraging
Domestic duties only
Warning: these figures indicate the number of cases found in the data file. They cannot be interpreted as summary statistics of the population of interest.
List all the activities that each household member is engaged in. Please ask the respondent to describe his or her main activity first, defined in terms of primary source of income/livelihood, and then list the second most important, third most important, and so on. Write a brief description of the activity in the space provided in the questionnaire. Obtain information on a minimum of one activity per household member. Persons who are not economically active could be classified as unemployed (code 10), students (code 11), performing domestic duties only (code 12), retired or too old to work (code 13), disabled or handicapped (code 14), sick (code 15), or simply not working (code 16).
The best strategy is to have each respondent simply first list all of his or her economic activities before asking for further details on each activity. Once s/he has done so, be sure to probe for more activities - many people pursue several activities throughout the year in order to support themselves. For example, an individual may work on the household's own land as well as do casual labor on other people's fields during the harvest season, and go to a nearby city for casual labor during the slack season.
Note that we would like this list of activities to be as detailed and disaggregated as possible. For instance, if a person worked for daily wages in two different activities and was paid a different wage rate per day for each of these activities, then we would like this information to be recorded in two separate lines, rather than aggregated into one activity described as “casual labor”.
In field tests, respondents often recalled some additional economic activities when filling in other parts of the questionnaire. If this occurs, add the additional activity information to Section 2 Once the respondent lists his/her activities, chose the code from the list below the most accurately describes each activity:
Once the respondent lists his/her activities, chose the code from the list below the most accurately describes each activity:
- OWN-FARM ACTIVITIES include any work done on the household’s own land or land sharecropped-in or rented-in as well as tending any livestock owned by the household;
- CASUAL LABOR includes all casual (e.g. non-permanent) wage work both in the agriculture sector and outside agriculture. Casual laborers are typically paid on a daily basis or by piece rate;
- LONG-TERM AGRICULTURE LABORER includes longer term unskilled or semiskilled work in the agriculture sector. Work and payment arrangements are seasonal or even longer-term;
- SALARIED EMPLOYMENT includes all permanent salaried work, typically outside the agriculture sector;.
- PETTY BUSINESS/TRADE/MANUFACTURING includes all time spent by respondents working in a small trade, manufacturing, and or services enterprise owned and operated by his/her household. Using NSS definitions, these would primarily include own-account enterprises (defined as undertakings run with family labor only) but may also include very small establishments (defined as undertakings having at least one hired worker). Note that respondents working for enterprises not owned by the family would be categorized as wage workers. All household members working for the undertaking should use this code whether paid or unpaid family workers.
- MAJOR BUSINESS/TRADE/MANUFACTURING includes all time spent by respondents working in a larger trade, manufacturing, and or services enterprise owned and operated by his/her household. These should include only larger establishments, which will typically have a number of paid employees and significant assets/capital stocks and equipment.
- PERSONAL (JAJMANI) SERVICES includes traditional services done within the village for payment in-kind or crop share, such as services performed by sweepers, scavengers, washermen, barbers, and midwives; artisan services such as blacksmiths, carpenters, and porters are included in petty business/trade/manufacturing.
- COLLECTION, FORAGING includes time spent in “free collection” of forest products, fuel, and fodder for domestic consumption or sales.
- CHARITY/ALMS includes begging and other charity activities.
- UNEMPLOYED is used only by respondents who were not working but actively seeking work over a significant period of time.
- STUDENT includes all people who are enrolled in some education program, including both academic and training programs.
- DOMESTIC DUTIES ONLY is used to classify individuals who perform only domestic duties for the household’s subsistence;
- RETIRED/TOO OLD includes all persons who no longer work due to age;
- DISABLED/HANDICAPPED is used to classify respondents who likely to be permanently unable to work due to their physical or mental conditions, while
- SICK is used in the case of respondents who were too ill to work for some temporary period of time.
- NOT WORKING should be used only in the case of respondents who claim to do no domestic work nor to work outside the household at over any time the past 12 months.